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Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Oil on Regulated Emissions of a Light-Duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1901
The Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) has identified the compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engine as a promising technology in meeting the PNGV goal of 80 miles per gallon for a prototype mid-size sedan by 2004. Challenges remain in reducing the emission levels of the CIDI-engine to meet future emission standards. The objective of this project was to perform an initial screening of crank case lubricant contribution to regulated engine-out emissions, particularly when low particulate forming diesel fuel formulations are used. The test engine was the Mercedes-Benz OM611, the test oils were a mineral SAE 5W30, a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 5W30, and a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 15W50, and the test fuels were a California-like certification fuel and an alternative oxygenated diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Observation of Transient Oil Consumption with In-Cylinder Variables

1996-10-01
961910
Only a limited understanding of the oil consumption mechanism appears to exist, especially oil consumption under transient engine operating conditions. This is probably due to the difficulty in engine instrumentation for measuring not only oil consumption, but also for measuring the associated in-cylinder variables. Because of this difficulty, a relatively large number of experiments and tests are often necessary for the development of each engine design in order to achieve the target oil consumption that meets the requirements for particulate emissions standards, oil economy, and engine reliability and durability. Increased understanding and logical approaches are believed to be necessary in developing the oil-consumption reduction technology that effectively and efficiently accomplishes the tasks of low oil-consumption engine development.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

1998-05-04
981423
To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cetane Number, Aromatics, and Oxygenates on Emissions From a 1994 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine With Exhaust Catalyst

1995-02-01
950250
A Coordinating Research Council sponsored test program was conducted to determine the effects of diesel fuel properties on emissions from two heavy-duty diesel engines designed to meet EPA emission requirements for 1994. Results for a prototype 1994 DDC Series 60 were reported in SAE Paper 941020. This paper reports the results from a prototype 1994 Navistar DTA-466 engine equipped with an exhaust catalyst. A set of ten fuels having specific variations in cetane number, aromatics, and oxygen were used to study effects of these fuel properties on emissions. Using glycol diether compounds as an oxygenated additive, selected diesel fuels were treated to obtain 2 and 4 mass percent oxygen. Cetane number was increased for selected fuels using a cetane improver. Emissions were measured during transient FTP operation of the Navistar engine tuned for a nominal 5 g/hp-hr NOx, then repeated using a 4 g/hp-hr NOx calibration.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cetane Number on Emissions From a Prototype 1998 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1995-02-01
950251
As stringent emission regulations further constrain engine manufacturers by tightening both NOx and particulate emission limits, a knowledge of fuel effects becomes more important than ever. Among the fuel properties that affect heavy-duty diesel engine emissions, cetane number can be very important. Part of the CRC-APRAC VE-10 Project was developed to quantify the effects of cetane number on NOx and other emissions from a prototype 1998 Detroit Diesel Series 60. Three fuels with different natural cetane number (41, 45, 52) were treated with several levels and types of cetane improvers to study a range of cetane number from 40 to 60. Statistical analysis was used to define how regulated emissions from this prototype 1998 engine decreased with chemically-induced cetane number increase. Variation of HC, CO, NOx, and PM were modeled using a combination of a fuel's naturally-occurring cetane number and its total cetane number obtained with cetane improver.
Technical Paper

Achieving the 2004 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Using Electronic EGR and a Cerium Based Fuel Borne Catalyst

1997-02-24
970189
The post-1998 diesel engine emissions challenge was put forth in July 1995 by the Statement of Principles (SOP) signed by the manufacturers of heavy duty engines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Through this SOP, the signatories agreed to reduce the on-highway diesel engine NOx emissions by 50% from the legislated 1998 4.0 g/bhp.hr to 2.0 g/bhp.hr by the year 2004 with no increase over the 1998 particulate matter legislated level set at 0.1 g/bhp.hr. There are provisions in the SOP for the optional grouping of the gaseous hydrocarbons and NOx, limiting them at a combined value of 2.5 g/bhp.hr with a 0.5 g/bhp.hr hydrocarbon limit. In North America, particulate matter emissions standards were first imposed on heavy duty diesel engines in 1988. Since then, the NOx and particulate matter were balanced by taking advantage of the trade-off between the two pollutants inherent in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

An Intake Charge Cooling System for Application to Diesel, Gasoline and Natural Gas Engines

1991-02-01
910420
Low intake manifold temperature, well below ambient, has many applications in internal combustion engines. In diesel engines, it can reduce NOx to a level of 2.0 g/hp-hr or below, going beyond the 1994 heavy duty diesel engine emissions standards. In gasoline engines, it can allow high compression ratio, turbocharged operation without end gas knock. This will permit ready conversion of some heavy duty diesel engines to gasoline operation at increased power density and lower emissions. In natural gas engines, it will allow base diesel engine to be converted to stoichiometric natural gas operation without increasing thermal loads. A three way catalyst can then be used to reduce emissions.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Strategies for Small Utility Engines

1991-09-01
911807
Recent approval of emission standards for small utility engines by the California Air Resources Board(1)* suggests that substantial reductions in emissions from small utility engines will soon be required. While 1994 standards may be met with simple engine adjustments or modifications, 1999 standards are much more stringent and may require the use of catalysts in conjunction with other emission reduction technologies. Assessing the feasibility of candidate emission control strategies is an important first step. Various emission reduction technologies were applied to three different 4-stroke engines. Emission tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of air/fuel ratio changes, thermal oxidation, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic oxidation with and without supplemental air. Results of these evaluations, along with implications for further work, are presented. One engine's emissions were reduced below the levels of 1999 ARB standards.
Technical Paper

Toward the Environmentally-Friendly Small Engine: Fuel, Lubricant, and Emission Measurement Issues

1991-11-01
911222
Small engines which are friendly toward the environment are needed all over the world, whether the need is expressed in terms of energy efficiency, useful engine life, health benefits for the user, or emission regulations enacted to protect a population or an ecologically-sensitive area. Progress toward the widespread application of lower-impact small engines is being made through engine design, matching of engine to equipment and task, aftertreatment technology, alternative and reformulated fuels, and improved lubricants. This paper describes three research and development projects, focused on the interrelationships of fuels, lubricants, and emissions in Otto-cycle engines, which were conducted by Southwest Research Institute. All the work reported was funded internally as part of a commitment to advance the state of small engine technology and thus enhance human utility.
Technical Paper

Engine and Constant Volume Bomb Studies of Diesel ignition and Combustion

1988-10-01
881626
Changing fuel quality, increasingly stringent exhaust emission standards, demands for higher efficiency, and the trend towards higher specific output, all contribute to the need for a better understanding of the ignition process in diesel engines. In addition to the impact on the combustion process and the resulting performance and emissions, the ignition process controls the startability of the engine, which, in turn, governs the required compressions ratio and several of the other engine design parameters. The importance of the ignition process is reflected in the fact that the only combustion property that is specified for diesel fuel is the ignition delay time as indicated by the cetane number. The objective of the work described in this paper was to determine the relationship between the ignition process as it occurs in an actual engine, to ignition in a constant volume combustion bomb.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous Unburned Oil Consumption Measurement in a Diesel Engine Using SO2 Tracer Technique

1992-10-01
922196
The contribution of lubricating oil to diesel engine particulate emissions is of concern not only because of stringent particulate emissions standards but also because of engine-to-engine variability. Unburned oil contributes directly to the particulate soluble organic fraction. A real-time oil consumption measurement technique previously developed was further refined to also measure real-time unburned oil consumption. The technique uses high sulfur oil, low sulfur fuel, and fast response, sensitive SO2 detection instrumentation. Total and unburned oil consumption maps over the engine operating range are presented. Results show that both total and unburned oil consumption generally increase as speed and load are increased. Unburned oil consumption shows some peaks at intermediate speed, high-load conditions. Oil consumption from individual cylinders was measured and shown to be approximately equal.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions from Two Natural Gas-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines

1993-10-01
932819
The use of compressed natural gas as an alternative to conventional fuels has received a great deal of attention as a strategy for reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. In many cases, regulatory action has been taken to displace diesel fuel with natural gas in truck and bus applications. Emissions results of heavy-duty transient FTP testing of two Cummins L10-240G natural gas engines are presented. Regulated emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons, total hydrocarbons, CO, NOx, and particulate were characterized, along with emissions of formaldehyde. The effects of air/fuel ratio adjustments on these emissions were explored, as well as the effectiveness of catalytic aftertreatment in reducing exhaust emissions. Compared to typical heavy-duty diesel engine emissions, CNG-fueled engines using exhaust aftertreatment have great potential for meeting future exhaust emission standards, although in-use durability is unproven.
Technical Paper

Engine Electronics Technology

1993-09-01
932404
Electronics technology has evolved significantly since the first electronically controlled heavy duty on-highway truck engines were introduced in the mid 1980's. Engine control hardware, software, and sensor designs have been driven by many factors. Emissions regulations, fuel economy, engine performance, operator features, fleet management information, diagnostics, vehicle integration, reliability, and new electronics technology are some of those factors. The latest engine electronics technology is not only found in heavy duty on-highway trucks, but in off-highway applications as well. Track-type tractors, haul trucks, wheel loaders, and agricultural tractors now benefit from the advantages of electronic engines. And, many more new applications are being developed.
Technical Paper

Development of an I/M Short Emissions Test for Buses

1992-02-01
920727
Emissions from existing diesel-powered urban buses are increasingly scrutinized as local, state, and federal governments require enforcement of more stringent emission regulations and expectations. Currently, visual observation of high smoke levels from diesel-powered equipment is a popular indicator of potential emission problems requiring tune-up or engine maintenance. It is important that bus inspection and maintenance (I/M) operations have a quality control “test” to check engine emissions or diagnose the engine state-of-tune before or after maintenance. Ideally, the “emission test” would be correlated to EPA transient emissions standards, be of short duration, and be compatible with garage procedures and equipment. In support of developing a useful “short-test,” equipment was designed to collect samples of raw exhaust over a short time period for gaseous and particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Application of On-Highway Emissions Technology to a Backhoe

1992-04-01
920922
Recent legislation, including the California Clean Air Act of 1988 and the Federal Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, includes off-road engines, equipment, and vehicles as targets for new exhaust emissions regulations. The Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District in cooperation with EXXON USA is conducting a major Low NOx Demonstration Program including mobile sources, construction equipment, and offshore equipment. As a part of this program, an existing backhoe has been retrofitted with a low NOx engine and demonstrated in the field. This paper discusses the work performed to allow Case model 580 backhoes to be retrofitted with Cummins 4BTAA3.9 on-highway turbocharged diesel engines. A standard production conversion kit can be used to mount the new engines in place of the older existing JI Case engines in some models while other newer models already have 4B3.9 engines. In addition, an air-to-air aftercooler and associated plumbing was designed and installed.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Automobile Fuel Economy

1974-02-01
740969
A series of road, engine, chassis dynamometer, and accessory power consumption tests was conducted in order to characterize the fuel economy of 1973 standard and intermediate size vehicles. Devices and systems which appeared to offer fuel economy benefits were evaluated by means of an analytical procedure. The study was limited to hardware which could be in production by the 1980 model year. The evaluation procedure was based on urban and steady speed operation, and the effects of compliance with future emission standards were included. Combinations of individual improvements were selected and applied to the same vehicle. The evaluation procedure was repeated, and fuel economy improvements of 30 to 70% were predicted by comparison with 1973 model year vehicles.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Emissions, Their Impact, and Possible Control Techniques

1974-02-01
740627
Seven motorcycles, ranging in size from 100 to 1200 cm3, were tested for emissions characterization purposes. They were operated on the federal seven-mode test procedure (for 1971 and older light-duty vehicles), the federal LA-4 test procedure (for 1972 and later LDVs), and under a variety of steady-state conditions. Four of the machines tested had 4-stroke engines, and the other three had 2-stroke engines. Emissions which were measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbon losses were also estimated. Crankcase “blowby” emissions from one 4-stroke machine were measured. The impact of motorcycles on national pollutant totals was estimated, based on the test results and information from a variety of sources on national population and usage of motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Intake Oxygen Mass Fraction for Transient Control of EGR Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0868
Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) technology provides significant benefits such as better cycle efficiency, knock tolerance and lower NOx/PM emissions. However, EGR dilution also poses challenges in terms of combustion stability, power density and control. Conventional control schemes for EGR engines rely on a differential pressure sensor combined with an orifice flow model to estimate EGR flow rate. While EGR rate is an important quantity, intake O2 mass fraction may be a better indication of EGR, capturing quantity as well as “quality” of EGR. SwRI has successfully used intake O2 mass fraction as a controlled state to manage several types of EGR engines - dual loop EGR diesel engines, low pressure loop /dedicated EGR (D-EGR) gasoline engines as well as dual fuel engines. Several suppliers are currently developing intake O2 sensors but they typically suffer from limited accuracy, response time and reliability. Also, addition of a new sensor implies increased production costs.
Technical Paper

Achieving Fast Catalyst Light-Off from a Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Capable of 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1136
Recently conducted work has been funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions for heavy-duty on-road engines. In addition to NOX emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG), CO2 and methane emissions regulations from heavy-duty engines are also becoming more stringent. To achieve low cold-start NOX and methane emissions, the exhaust aftertreatment must be brought up to temperature quickly while keeping proper air-fuel ratio control; however, a balance between catalyst light-off and fuel penalty must be addressed to meet future CO2 emissions regulations. This paper details the work executed to improve catalyst light-off for a natural gas engine with a close-coupled and an underfloor three-way-catalyst while meeting an FTP NOX emission target of 0.02 g/bhp-hr and minimizing any fuel penalty.
Technical Paper

Solid Particle Number and Ash Emissions from Heavy-Duty Natural Gas and Diesel w/SCRF Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0362
Solid and metallic ash particle number (PN) and particulate matter (PM) mass emission measurements were performed on a heavy-duty (HD) on-highway diesel engine and a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. Measurements were conducted under transient engine operation that included the FTP, WHTC and RMC. Both engines were calibrated to meet CARB ultra low NOX emission target of 0.02 g/hp-hr, a 90% reduction from current emissions limit. The HD diesel engine final exhaust configuration included a number of aftertreatement sub-systems in addition to a selective catalytic reduction filter (SCRF). The stoichiometric CNG engine final configuration included a closed coupled Three Way Catalyst (ccTWC) and an under floor TWC (ufTWC). The aftertreatment systems for both engines were aged for a full useful life (FUL) of 435,000 miles, prior to emissions testing. PM mass emissions from both engines were comparable and well below the US EPA emissions standard.
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