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Video

SCR Deactivation Kinetics for Model-Based Control and Accelerated Aging Applications

2012-06-18
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts are used to reduce NOx emissions from internal combustion engines in a variety of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and a Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NH3 storage capacity measurement data as a function of aging time and temperature. Addressing one objective of the work, these data can be used in model-based control algorithms to calculate the current NH3 storage capacity of an SCR catalyst operating in the field, based on time and temperature history. The model-based control then uses the calculated value for effective DEF control and prevention of excessive NH3 slip. Addressing a second objective of the work, accelerated thermal aging of SCR catalysts may be achieved by elevating temperatures above normal operating temperatures.
Video

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-06-18
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Video

Evaluation of a NOx Transient Response Method for OBD of SCR Catalysts

2012-01-30
OBD requirements for aftertreatment system components require monitoring of the individual system components. One such component can be an NH3-SCR catalyst for NOx reduction. An OBD method that has been suggested is to generate positive or negative spikes in the inlet NH3 concentration, and monitor the outlet NOx transient response. A slow response indicates that the catalyst is maintaining its NH3 storage capacity, and therefore it is probably not degraded. A fast response indicates the catalyst has lost NH3 storage capacity, and may be degraded. The purpose of the work performed at Southwest Research Institute was to assess this approach for feasibility, effectiveness and practicality. The presentation will describe the work performed, results obtained, and implications for applying this method in test laboratory and real-world situations. Presenter Gordon J. Bartley, Southwest Research Institute
Technical Paper

Emissions Reduction Performance of a Bimetallic Platinum/Cerium Fuel Borne Catalyst with Several Diesel Particulate Filters on Different Sulfur Fuels

2001-03-05
2001-01-0904
Results of engine bench tests on a 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine have confirmed the emissions reduction performance of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered platinum/cerium bimetallic fuel borne catalyst (FBC) used with several different catalyzed and uncatalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPF's). Performance was evaluated on both a 450ppm sulfur fuel (No.2 D) and a CARB 50ppm low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel. Particulate emissions of less than 0.02g/bhp-hr were achieved on several combinations of FBC and uncatalyzed filters on 450ppm sulfur fuel while levels of 0.01g/bhp-hr were achieved for both catalyzed and uncatalyzed filters using the FBC with the low sulfur CARB fuel. Eight-mode steady state testing of one filter and FBC combination with engine timing changes produced a 20% nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction with particulates (PM) maintained at 0.01g/bhp-hr and no increase in measured fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Particle Size Distribution and Mass Emissions from a Mining Diesel Engine Equipped with a Dry System Technologies Emission Control System

2003-05-19
2003-01-1893
Particle size distribution, number, and mass emissions from the exhaust of a 92 kW 1999 Isuzu 6BG1 nonroad naturally aspirated diesel engine were measured. The engine exhaust was equipped with a Dry System Technologies® (DST) auxiliary emission control device that included an oxidation catalyst, a heat exchanger, and a disposable paper particulate filter. Particle measurement was taken during the ISO 8178 8-mode test for engine out and engine with the DST using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) in parallel to the standard filter method (SFM), specified in 40 CFR, Part 89. The DST efficiency of removing particles was about 99.9 percent based on particle number, 99.99 percent based on particle mass derived from number and size. However, the efficiency based on mass derived from the SFM was much lower on the order of 90 to 93 percent.
Technical Paper

U.S. Army Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Emissions Using JP-8 Fuels with Varying Sulfur Content

1996-10-01
961981
Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 weight percent (wt%) was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are equivalent to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

1997-02-24
970531
Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

1998-10-19
982634
The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

A Study of Engine Sensitivity to Spark Plug Rim-Fire

1998-05-04
981453
A recent study of engine sensitivity revealed that spark plugs used in conventional spark-ignited gasoline-fueled engines do not always fire in the intended fashion. Rather than firing to the ground strap during each ignition event, the arc frequently travels to the “rim” or “shell” of the spark plug. This behavior is termed rim-fire and although observed by other researchers in industry, its effects on engine performance are not widely reported. This paper addresses some of the quantitative effects of rim-fire on engine performance. Combustion data were recorded for various repeat conditions on a Ford 1.8L Zetec engine. The first set of engine tests used four, new, conventional, automotive spark plugs. The second set of engine tests used four modified spark plugs that induced 100% rim-fire when the ground strap was permanently removed. The study focused on part- and full-load engine performance, EGR tolerance, and step-transient characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

1998-05-04
981423
To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

Development of an Ethanol-Fueled Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

1998-05-04
981358
A 1993 Ford Taurus Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) designed to operate on gasoline or methanol has been modified to run on Ed85 (85 vol.% denatured ethanol, 15 vol.% gasoline) and has demonstrated the ability to meet California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. The vehicle maintains the excellent driveability with potentially increased performance and similar efficiency to the baseline vehicle. Using standard twin OEM catalysts, FTP-75 emissions were 0.085 g/mi NOx, 0.88 g/mi CO, and 0.039 g/mi reactivity-adjusted NMOG. Using close-coupled catalysts upstream of the OEM catalysts, FTP-75 emissions were 0.031 g/mi NOx, 0.297 g/mi CO, and 0.015 g/mi reactivity-adjusted NMOG. The catalysts were aged to about 4,000 miles of equivalent use. These emissions compare with ULEV standards of 0.2 g/mi NOx, 1.7 g/mi CO, and 0.04 g/mi NMOG at 50,000 miles of use.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties on Emissions from a 2.5gm NOx Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982491
The engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Engine exhaust emissions, performance, and heat release rates were measured as functions of engine configuration, engine speed and load. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to achieve a NOx emissions level of 2.5 gm/hp-hr. Measurements were performed at 7 different steady-state, speed-load conditions on thirteen different test fuels. The fuel matrix was statistically designed to independently examine the effects of the targeted fuel properties. Cetane number was varied from 40 to 55, using both natural cetane number and cetane percent improver additives. Aromatic content ranged from 10 to 30 percent in two different forms, one in which the aromatics were predominantly mono-aromatic species and the other, where a significant fraction of the aromatics were either di- or tri-aromatics.
Technical Paper

Reduced Cold-Start Emissions Using Rapid Exhaust Port Oxidation (REPO) in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970264
An emissions reduction strategy was developed and demonstrated to significantly reduce cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) and CO emissions from a spark ignition (SI), gasoline-fueled engine. This strategy involved cold-starting the engine with an ultra-fuel rich calibration, while metering near-stoichiometric fractions of air directly into the exhaust ports. Using this approach, exhaust constituents spontaneously ignited at the exhaust ports and burned into the exhaust manifold and exhaust pipe leading to the catalytic converter. The resulting exotherm accelerated catalyst heating and significantly decreased light-off time following a cold-start on the FTP-75 with a Ford Escort equipped with a 1.9L engine. Mass emissions measurements acquired during the first 70 seconds of the FTP-75 revealed total-HC and CO reductions of 68 and 50 percent, respectively, when compared to baseline measurements.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Engine Cycle Simulation Model with Species Tracking in Piping System

1996-02-01
960077
Due to compressibility, reactivity, evaporation and mixing, the gas species concentration varies significantly along the intake and exhaust pipes of an engine. An understanding of this behavior is vital to correctly predict catalyst performance because the behavior of a catalyst very much depends on the instantaneous local species concentrations, rather than those in the cylinder. Also, knowing this behavior is more important to assess the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The objective of this research is to develop a tool that is capable of predicting the instantaneous species concentration throughout the entire intake and exhaust system, and to lay out a foundation to model catalysts in the near future. This is done by first developing a complete engine cycle simulation model that is able to accurately predict wave dynamics in the piping system. Then, species tracking is accomplished by solving the species conservation equations.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Diesel Fuel

1996-05-01
961160
A single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was modified to operate on compression ignition of homogenous mixtures of diesel fuel and air. Previous work has indicated that extremely low emissions and high efficiencies are possible if ignition of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures is accomplished. The limitations of this approach were reported to be misfire and knock. These same observations were verified in the current work. The variables examined in this study included air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, fresh intake air temperature, exhaust gas recirculation rate, and intake mixture temperatures. The results suggested that controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible. Compression ratio, EGR rate, and air fuel ratio are the practical controlling factors in achieving satisfactory operation. It was found that satisfactory power settings are possible with high EGR rates and stoichiometric fuel-air mixtures.
Technical Paper

EGR System Integration on a Pump Line-Nozzle Engine

1998-02-23
980181
The minimum oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were investigated on a heavy-duty diesel engine featuring a pump-line-nozzle fuel injection system. Due to the technical merits of electronic fuel injection systems, most accounts of EGR system development for heavy-duty diesel engines have focused on these types of engines and not engines with mechanical fuel systems. This work details use of a high-pressure-loop EGR configuration and a novel, computer-controlled, EGR valve that allowed for optimizing the EGR rate as a function of speed and load on a 6L, turbo-charged/intercooled engine. Cycle NOx levels were reduced nearly 50 percent to 2.3 g/hp-hr using conventional diesel fuel and application of only EGR, but particulates increased nearly three-fold even with the standard oxidation catalyst employed.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) of Diesel Fuel

1997-05-01
971676
This paper describes the ongoing homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) research being carried out at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). Summaries of the results of testing to date are presented and discussed. HCCI is a process whereby a premixed charge of diesel fuel and air is admitted into the power cylinder and compression ignited. Ignition occurs homogeneously throughout the cylinder. HCCI reduces flame temperatures and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The lack of fuel rich zones within the cylinder eliminates soot formation (1-pull Bosch smoke numbers of 0, 5-pull = 0). The limits of HCCI start of combustion timing are defined by knock before top dead center (BTDC) and misfire after top dead center (ATDC). Stable and repeatable HCCI combustion has been demonstrated over a wide range of air-fuel (A/F) ratios, intake temperatures, compression ratios (CR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates, and for two fuels. A/F ratios of 14 to 80 are possible.
Technical Paper

A PC-Based Model for Predicting NOx Reductions in Diesel Engines

1996-10-01
962060
A menu-driven, PC-based model, ALAMO_ENGINE, has been developed to predict the nitrogen oxides (NOx) reductions in direct-injected, diesel engines due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), emulsified fuels, manifold or in-cylinder water injection, fuel injection timing changes, humidity effects, and intake air temperature changes. The approach was to use a diesel engine cycle simulation with detailed gas composition calculations for the intake and exhaust gases (including EGR, water concentration, fuel-type effects, etc.), coupled with a code to calculate stoichiometric, adiabatic flame temperatures and expressions that correlate measured NOx emissions with the flame temperature. Execution times are less than 10 seconds on a 486-66 MHz PC.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lean-NOx Catalyst Containing Metal-Ligand Complex Impregnated Molecular Sieves

1996-10-01
962050
This paper describes the development and evaluation of an operative catalyst for the reduction of NOx in lean exhaust. A catalyst that incorporates iron (II)-complex impregnated modified mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) has been synthesized and further treated with [pd(NH3)4]Cl2 [1]. Experimental results suggest a hydrocarbon-independent reduction of NOx takes place on the iron center, and oxidation of CO is assisted by the palladium ion. The catalytic activity toward HC CO, and NOx removal was studied with simulated and real engine exhaust in the laboratory and on an engine, respectively. Engine test results demonstrate a reduction of NOx of up to 10 percent at catalyst inlet temperatures in the range of 260°C to 280°C. In this paper, possible NOx reduction pathways are also discussed.
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