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Technical Paper

U.S. Army Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Emissions Using JP-8 Fuels with Varying Sulfur Content

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 weight percent (wt%) was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are equivalent to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cetane Number on Emissions From a Prototype 1998 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

As stringent emission regulations further constrain engine manufacturers by tightening both NOx and particulate emission limits, a knowledge of fuel effects becomes more important than ever. Among the fuel properties that affect heavy-duty diesel engine emissions, cetane number can be very important. Part of the CRC-APRAC VE-10 Project was developed to quantify the effects of cetane number on NOx and other emissions from a prototype 1998 Detroit Diesel Series 60. Three fuels with different natural cetane number (41, 45, 52) were treated with several levels and types of cetane improvers to study a range of cetane number from 40 to 60. Statistical analysis was used to define how regulated emissions from this prototype 1998 engine decreased with chemically-induced cetane number increase. Variation of HC, CO, NOx, and PM were modeled using a combination of a fuel's naturally-occurring cetane number and its total cetane number obtained with cetane improver.
Technical Paper

Meeting the Customer's Needs - Defining the Next Generation Electronically Controlled Unit Injector Concept for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Diesel engine manufacturers have been asking for new, innovative, flexible fuel injection systems in order to meet future diesel engine emission requirements throughout the world and improve engine performance. Engineers at Caterpillar have listened to these requests and developed a fuel system concept to meet their needs. This new fuel system is called the Next Generation Electronic Unit Injector (NGEUI). The new concept is adaptable to mechanically actuated electronic unit injector, hydraulic electronic unit injector, electronic unit pump, and pump/line/nozzle systems. Features of the new fuel system are listed below: 1. Fully controllable injection pressure independent of engine speed and load 2. Injection pressure capability to 207 MPa (30,000 psi) 3. Reduced drive train torsional excitation and improved hydraulic efficiency 4.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

Effects of Increased Altitude on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

Concern over emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines at high altitudes prompted an investigation into the effects of increasing altitude on gaseous and particulate emissions. On behalf of the Engine Manufacturers Association, emissions from a Detroit Diesel Corporation Series 60 at local test conditions (barometer 98.9 kPa), and two simulated altitudes, Denver (82.6 kPa) and Mexico City (77.9 kPa) were examined using a special altitude simulation CVS. Transient torque output and full load steady-state torque, for this turbocharged aftercooled engine, decreased slightly with increasing altitude. Although, the DDC Series 60 compensates for variation in barometer, transient composite emissions of HC, CO, CO2, smoke, and particulate matter generally increased with increasing altitude for both transient and steady-state operation.
Technical Paper

Achieving the 2004 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Using Electronic EGR and a Cerium Based Fuel Borne Catalyst

The post-1998 diesel engine emissions challenge was put forth in July 1995 by the Statement of Principles (SOP) signed by the manufacturers of heavy duty engines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Through this SOP, the signatories agreed to reduce the on-highway diesel engine NOx emissions by 50% from the legislated 1998 4.0 g/ to 2.0 g/ by the year 2004 with no increase over the 1998 particulate matter legislated level set at 0.1 g/ There are provisions in the SOP for the optional grouping of the gaseous hydrocarbons and NOx, limiting them at a combined value of 2.5 g/ with a 0.5 g/ hydrocarbon limit. In North America, particulate matter emissions standards were first imposed on heavy duty diesel engines in 1988. Since then, the NOx and particulate matter were balanced by taking advantage of the trade-off between the two pollutants inherent in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

An Intake Charge Cooling System for Application to Diesel, Gasoline and Natural Gas Engines

Low intake manifold temperature, well below ambient, has many applications in internal combustion engines. In diesel engines, it can reduce NOx to a level of 2.0 g/hp-hr or below, going beyond the 1994 heavy duty diesel engine emissions standards. In gasoline engines, it can allow high compression ratio, turbocharged operation without end gas knock. This will permit ready conversion of some heavy duty diesel engines to gasoline operation at increased power density and lower emissions. In natural gas engines, it will allow base diesel engine to be converted to stoichiometric natural gas operation without increasing thermal loads. A three way catalyst can then be used to reduce emissions.
Technical Paper

On-Line Diesel Engine Oil Consumption Measurement

Oil consumption has been identified as a contributor to diesel particulate exhaust emissions. The strict requirements for reduced diesel exhaust particulates in 1991 and in 1994 call for a much greater understanding of the level of oil consumption during transient as well as steady-state operations. A system has been assembled to continuously measure diesel engine oil consumption through on-line detection using sulfur as a tracer. The system requires a sulfur-free fuel, a high-sulfur diesel engine oil, an exhaust sampling system, and a sensitive detector. A series of engine tests were conducted using the sulfur-trace oil consumption measurement system. Variations in oil consumption at steady state and during transient operations have been measured. Quantitative measurement of oil consumption rates were confirmed by two separate calibration checks.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions from Two Natural Gas-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines

The use of compressed natural gas as an alternative to conventional fuels has received a great deal of attention as a strategy for reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. In many cases, regulatory action has been taken to displace diesel fuel with natural gas in truck and bus applications. Emissions results of heavy-duty transient FTP testing of two Cummins L10-240G natural gas engines are presented. Regulated emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons, total hydrocarbons, CO, NOx, and particulate were characterized, along with emissions of formaldehyde. The effects of air/fuel ratio adjustments on these emissions were explored, as well as the effectiveness of catalytic aftertreatment in reducing exhaust emissions. Compared to typical heavy-duty diesel engine emissions, CNG-fueled engines using exhaust aftertreatment have great potential for meeting future exhaust emission standards, although in-use durability is unproven.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Hydrocarbon Speciation:Key Issues and Technological Challenges

Development of methodology for diesel hydrocarbon speciation of C12-C22 compounds and the application of that methodology to determine total ozone forming potential of diesel exhaust emissions is an extremely complicated task. Methodology has already been developed for speciating C1-C12 exhaust emissions from engines and vehicles fueled with gasoline, diesel, and alternate fuels. However, very little or no information is available for exhaust speciation of C12-C22 compounds as sampling and analytical constraints make the collection and analysis of the higher molecular weight compounds extremely challenging. Key issues related to the definition of “hydrocarbons” also need to be addressed prior to promulgation of future reactivity-based legislation for diesels (e.g., Which exhaust hydrocarbon compounds actually exist in gas-phase and participate in atmospheric ozone formation?).
Technical Paper

Application of On-Highway Emissions Technology on a Scraper Engine

An investigation was performed to determine the effects of applying on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine emissions reduction technology to an off-highway version of the engine. Special attention was paid to the typical constraints of fuel consumption, heat rejection, packaging and cost-effectiveness. The primary focus of the effort was NOx, reduction while hopefully not worsening other gaseous and particulate emissions. Hardware changes were limited to “bolt-on” items, thus excluding piston and combustion chamber modifications. In the final configuration, NOx was improved by 28 percent, particulates by 58 percent, CO and HC were also better and the fuel economy penalty was limited to under 4 percent. Observations are made about the effectiveness of various individual and combined strategies, and potential problems are identified.
Technical Paper

Public Opinion of Diesel Odor

This paper describes the results of a public opinion survey on testing of diesel exhaust odors conducted during 1969 and 1970. Major goals of the research were to relate public opinion of the odors and the objectionability associated with them to odor intensity, and to obtain a dose-response curve as the primary result. The dose-response curve was needed to assess odor-control technology by providing a criterion for deciding whether or not the effect of a given control item would be noticed by the general public, reduce complaints, or be worth the cost and effort required for its implementation. The engine used as the live odor source for the subject research was a two-stroke cycle type similar to those used in many buses. This engine type was chosen because its exposure to the public in urban bus applications is very widespread, and because a large portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's odor research had been performed with similar engines.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Hydrocarbon Measurement - A Flame-Ionization Method

The design and development of an instrument for the measurement of total hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust are described, and its ability to measure steady-state and transient hydrocarbon emissions is indicated. The two-section system comprises a sampling train and flame-ionization detector and a chromatograph electrometer, recorder and backpressure regulator. A mixture of 40% H2 and 60% He was found to be the best fuel for low O2 response with the system. The method has been used for more than a year in evaluating hydrocarbon emissions from a wide variety of diesel engines under a number of typical operating conditions. The greatest advantage of the high-temperature system is its potential for expressing the total hydrocarbon content in diesel exhaust.
Technical Paper

Diesel Catalyst Aging using a FOCAS® HGTR, a Diesel Burner System, to Simulate Engine-Based Aging

The classical approach to prepare engine exhaust emissions control systems for evaluation and certification is to condition the fresh parts by aging the systems on an engine/dynamometer aging stand. For diesel systems this can be a very lengthy process since the estimated service life of the emissions control systems can be several hundred thousand miles. Thus full useful life aging can take thousands of engine bench aging hours, even at elevated temperatures, making aging a considerable cost and time investment. Compared to gasoline engines, diesel engines operate with very low exhaust gas temperatures. One of the major sources of catalyst deactivation is exposure to high temperature [ 1 ].
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Diesel NOX/PM Reduction

The US EPA emission standards for 2010 on-highway and 2014 non-road diesel engines are extremely stringent, both in terms of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Diesel engines typically operate lean and use at least 40-50 percent more air than what is needed for stoichiometric combustion of the fuel. As a result, significant excess oxygen (O₂) is present in diesel exhaust gas which prevents the application of the mature three-way catalyst (TWC) technology for NOX control used in gasoline engines. The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not the catalyzed DPF had a TWC-type of effect on NOX emissions and if so, why and to what extent when used on a diesel engine operating at reduced A/F ratio conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Particulate Sampler for On-board PM Measurement

Horiba on-board diesel exhaust particulate sampler (OBS-PM) is a filter based partial flow particulate sampling system used for On-board diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement. It takes sample from either raw or diluted exhaust. It can run at constant dilution ratios or at variable dilution ratios with proportional control on the sample flow. The diluted exhaust moves through a pre-weighed 47 mm particulate filter and PM is collected on the filter. By weighing the loaded sample filter, PM emission from the engine or the vehicle can be determined. The performance of the OBS-PM meets most of requirements for a real-time partial flow sample system (PFSS) recommended by ISO 16183 [2]. The physical size and the power consumption of the instrument are minimized. It is powered with four 12 volts batteries, and can be installed on a vehicle for real-world PM emission evaluation.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Emissions and a Feasible Solution for Common Calibration

Fuel properties impact the engine-out emission directly. For some geographic regions where diesel engines can meet emission regulations without aftertreatment, the change of fuel properties will lead to final tailpipe emission variation. Aftertreatment systems such as Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet stringent regulations. These regulations include off-road Tier 4 Final emission regulations in the USA or the corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe. As an engine with an aftertreatment system, the change of fuel properties will also affect the system conversion efficiency and regeneration cycle. Previous research works focus on prediction of engine-out emission, and many are based on chemical reactions. Due to the complex mixing, pyrolysis and reaction process in heterogeneous combustion, it is not cost-effective to find a general model to predict emission shifting due to fuel variation.
Technical Paper

Integration of Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Selective Catalytic Reduction, Diesel Particulate Filters, and Fuel-Borne Catalyst for NOx/PM Reduction

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has long been used in gasoline and light-duty diesel engines as a NOx reduction tool. Recently imposed emission regulations led several heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers to adopt EGR as part of their strategy to reduce NOx. The effectiveness of this technology has been widely documented, with NOx reduction in the range of 40 to 50 percent having been recorded. An inevitable consequence of this strategy is an increase in particulate emission, especially if EGR was used in high engine load modes. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), a method for NOx reduction, is widely used in stationary applications. There is growing interest and activity to apply it to mobile fleets equipped with heavy-duty diesel engines. Results of this work indicate that SCR has the potential to dramatically reduce NOx in diesel exhaust. Reductions greater than 70 percent were reported by several including the Institute's previous work (SAE Paper No. 1999-01-3564).
Technical Paper

EPA HDEWG Program-Engine Tests Results

In 1997 the US EPA formed a Heavy-Duty Engine Working Group (HDEWG) in the Mobile Sources Technical Advisory Subcommittee to address the questions related to fuel property effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The Working Group consisted of members from EPA and the oil refining and engine manufacturing industries. The goal of the Working Group was to help define the role of the fuel in meeting the future emissions standards in advanced technology engines (beyond 2004 regulated emissions levels). To meet this objective a three-phase program was developed. Phase I was designed to demonstrate that a prototype engine, located at Southwest Research Institute, represented similar emissions characteristics to that of certain manufacturers prototype engines. Phase II was designed to document the effects of selected fuel properties using a statistically designed fuel matrix in which cetane number, density, and aromatic content and type were the independent variables.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Aging of NOx Sensors in Heavy-Duty Engine Exhaust

Research has shown that there are many factors that affect the long-term performance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) control systems used in diesel engine applications. However, if the NOx emissions can be accurately monitored, it might be possible to restore performance by making adjustments to the control systems. This paper presents results from a study that tested the durability of 25 NOx sensors exposed to heavy-duty diesel exhaust for 6,000 hours. The study, conducted by the Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) project, tested the sensors at various locations in the exhaust stream.