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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Lean Limit and Performance Improvements for a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

Development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine to improve its lean operating characteristics is detailed in this paper. Testing to determine the lean misfire limit is described, as well as investigations into the cause of lean misfire in this engine. Details of engine modifications to improve the lean misfire limit are also included. The development process resulted in a significant improvement in the lean performance of the engine (i.e., an extended lean misfire limit, better combustion stability, and lower hydrocarbon emissions).
Technical Paper

Reactivity and Exhaust Emissions from an EHC-Equipped LPG Conversion Vehicle Operating on Butane/Propane Fuel Blends

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) exhaust emissions, ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for several butane/propane alternative fuel blends run on a light-duty EHC-equipped gasoline vehicle converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Duplicate emission tests were conducted on the light-duty vehicle at each test condition using appropriate EPA FTP test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was utilized to determine reactivity-adjusted non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions for one test on each fuel.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Efficiency from an On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

Results from work focusing on the development of an ultra low emissions, high efficiency, natural gas-fueled heavy- duty engine are discussed in this paper. The engine under development was based on a John Deere 8.1L engine; this engine was significantly modified from its production configuration during the course of an engine optimization program funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Previous steady-state testing indicated that the modified engine would provide simultaneous reductions in nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption while maintaining equivalent or lower NOx levels. Federal Test Procedure transient tests confirmed these expectations. Very low NOx emissions, averaging 1.0 g/bhp-hr over hot-start cycles, were attained; at these conditions, reductions in engine-out nonmethane hydro-carbons emissions (NMHC) were approximately 30 percent, and fuel consumption over the cycle was also reduced relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

Lower Explosion Limits and Compositions of Middle Distillate Fuel Vapors

Lower explosion limits (LEL) and the chemical compositions of JP-8, Jet A and JP-5 fuel vapors were determined in a sealed combustion vessel equipped with a spark igniter, a gas-sampling probe, and sensors to measure pressure rise and fuel temperature. Ignition was detected by pressure rise in the vessel. Pressure rises up to 60 psig were observed near the flash points of the test fuels. The fuel vapors in the vessel ignited from as much as 11°F below flash-point measurements. Detailed hydrocarbon speciation of the fuel vapors was performed using high-resolution gas chromatography. Over 300 hydrocarbons were detected in the vapors phase. The average molecular weight, hydrogen to carbon ratio, and LEL of the fuel vapors were determined from the concentration measurements. The jet fuel vapors had molecular weights ranging from 114 to 132, hydrogen to carbon ratios of approximately 1.93, and LELs comparable to pure hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Operating on Gasoline, Diesel, and Alternative Fuels

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for various heavy-duty engines operating on “industry average” (RF-A) gasoline, California Phase 2 gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel fuel. Each engine/fuel combination was tested in triplicate using the EPA heavy-duty transient cold- and hot-start test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was conducted for all tests to allow for the determination of ozone-forming potentials, using California Air Resources Board maximum incremental reactivity factors as well as determination of the Clean Air Act “toxic” emissions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Measurements

A technique was demonstrated that can quantify the state of mixture preparation during the critical periods of ignition and very early flame development in a “production” spark-ignited engine. To determine the degree of stratification and vaporization two fast-response hydrocarbon (HC) probes were placed in a specially adapted spark plug. Data from the HC analyzer was correlated with cylinder pressure data to relate changes in mixture preparation to classic engine measures, such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Reduced Cold-Start Emissions Using Rapid Exhaust Port Oxidation (REPO) in a Spark-Ignition Engine

An emissions reduction strategy was developed and demonstrated to significantly reduce cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) and CO emissions from a spark ignition (SI), gasoline-fueled engine. This strategy involved cold-starting the engine with an ultra-fuel rich calibration, while metering near-stoichiometric fractions of air directly into the exhaust ports. Using this approach, exhaust constituents spontaneously ignited at the exhaust ports and burned into the exhaust manifold and exhaust pipe leading to the catalytic converter. The resulting exotherm accelerated catalyst heating and significantly decreased light-off time following a cold-start on the FTP-75 with a Ford Escort equipped with a 1.9L engine. Mass emissions measurements acquired during the first 70 seconds of the FTP-75 revealed total-HC and CO reductions of 68 and 50 percent, respectively, when compared to baseline measurements.
Technical Paper

A Non-Intrusive Method of Measuring PCV Blowby Constituents

A technique is presented that has been successfully demonstrated to non-intrusively and quickly sample gases typically found in PCV systems. Color Detection Tubes (CDTs) were used with a simple sampling arrangement to monitor CO2, NOx, O2, and H2O(g) at the closure line, crankcase, and PCV line. Measurements were accurate and could be made instantaneously. Short Path Thermal Desorbtion Tubes (SPTDTs) were used at the same engine locations for the characterization of fuel- and oil-derived hydrocarbon (HC) fractions and required only 50 cc samples. High engine loads caused pushover of blowby vapors as indicated by increased concentrations of CO2, NOx, H2O(g), and fuel HCs in the engines' fresh air inlets during WOT operation. Peak concentrations of blowby vapors were measured in the crankcase under no load and part throttle conditions. Oxygen concentrations always opposed the trends of CO2, NOx, and H2O(g).
Technical Paper

Emissions From Snowmobile Engines Using Bio-based Fuels and Lubricants

Snowmobile engine emissions are of concern in environmentally sensitive areas, such as Yellowstone National Park (YNP). A program was undertaken to determine potential emission benefits of use of bio-based fuels and lubricants in snowmobile engines. Candidate fuels and lubricants were evaluated using a fan-cooled 488-cc Polaris engine, and a liquid-cooled 440-cc Arctco engine. Fuels tested include a reference gasoline, gasohol (10% ethanol), and an aliphatic gasoline. Lubricants evaluated include a bio-based lubricant, a fully synthetic lubricant, a high polyisobutylene (PIB) lubricant, as well as a conventional, mineral-based lubricant. Emissions and fuel consumption were measured using a five-mode test cycle that was developed from analysis of snowmobile field operating data.
Technical Paper

Achieving the 2004 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Using Electronic EGR and a Cerium Based Fuel Borne Catalyst

The post-1998 diesel engine emissions challenge was put forth in July 1995 by the Statement of Principles (SOP) signed by the manufacturers of heavy duty engines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Through this SOP, the signatories agreed to reduce the on-highway diesel engine NOx emissions by 50% from the legislated 1998 4.0 g/ to 2.0 g/ by the year 2004 with no increase over the 1998 particulate matter legislated level set at 0.1 g/ There are provisions in the SOP for the optional grouping of the gaseous hydrocarbons and NOx, limiting them at a combined value of 2.5 g/ with a 0.5 g/ hydrocarbon limit. In North America, particulate matter emissions standards were first imposed on heavy duty diesel engines in 1988. Since then, the NOx and particulate matter were balanced by taking advantage of the trade-off between the two pollutants inherent in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Ceramic Particulate Trap on the Particulate and Vapor Phase Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Exhaust emissions were characterized from a Cummins LTA10 heavy-duty diesel engine operated at two EPA steady-state modes with and without an uncatalyzed Corning ceramic particulate trap. The regulated emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and total particulate matter (TPM) and its components as well as the unregulated emissions of PAH, nitro-PAH, mutagenic activity and particle size distributions were measured. The consistently significant effects of the trap on regulated emissions included reductions of TPM and TPM-associated components. There were no changes in NOx and HC were reduced only at one operating condition. Particle size distribution measurements showed that nuclei-mode particles were formed downstream of the trap, which effectively removed accumulation-mode particles. All of the mutagenicity was direct-acting and the mutagenic activity of the XOC was approximately equivalent to that of the SOF without the trap.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Sulfur Concentration on Regulated and Unregulated Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

The effects of fuel sulfur concentration on heavy-duty diesel emissions have been studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, mode 9 (1900 RPM, 75% Load) and mode 11(1900 RPM, 25% Load). Data were obtained using one fuel at two sulfur levels (Low Sulfur, LS = 0.01 wt% S and Doped Low Sulfur DS = 0.29 wt% S). All tests were conducted using a Cummins LTA10-300 heavy-duty diesel engine. No significant changes were found for the nitrogen oxides (NOx), soluble organic fractions (SOF) and XAD-2 (a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene) organic component (XOC) due to the fuel sulfur level increase at either engine mode. The hydrocarbon (HC) levels were not significantly affected by sulfur at mode 9; however, at mode 11 the HC levels were reduced by 16%. The total particulate matter (TPM) levels increased by 17% at mode 11 and by 24% at mode 9 (both significantly different).
Technical Paper

Lean NOx Catalyst Evaluation and Characterization

Copper ion exchange procedures were used to prepare zeolite-based catalysts for NOx reduction in lean (oxygen-rich) exhaust. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the presence of copper in the zeolite matrix. Zeolites were applied onto honeycomb and foam substrates, and evaluated for catalytic NOx reduction efficiency using engine exhaust. Copper-exchanged zeolite catalysts prepared for this study revealed NOx reduction of 95 percent for a period of seven minutes using previously adsorbed exhaust hydrocarbons as the reducing agent. Experiments using ethylene injection to supplement the exhaust suggest long-term and sustained NOx reduction, initially observed at 52 percent. Experimental results and performance comparisons of ZSM-5, mordenite, and Y-type zeolites are discussed. Zeolite catalysts based on Cu-mordenite showed high levels of initial NOx reduction, while results using Cu-ZSM-5 suggested better long-term activity.
Technical Paper

Development of a Heavy Duty On-Highway Natural Gas-Fueled Engine

A heavy-duty 320 kW diesel engine has been converted to natural gas operation. Conversion technology was selected to minimize costs while reaching NOx emissions goals of less than 3.2 g/kW-hr. Two engines are being converted using quiescent and high swirl combustion systems. The first engine with low swirl cylinder heads of the base diesel engine, and a combustion system developed for it was tested on a steady state cycle that has been shown to simulate the US heavy duty transient test cycle. It shows NOx emissions of 2.9 g/kW-hr and total HC emissions of 5.4 g/kW-hr. It is suspected that the HC emission is high because of high valve overlap. Experience with other similar engines suggests that non-methane HC emission is about 0.4-0.8 g/kW-hr. It is also expected that modified valve events and/or an oxidation catalyst can reduce HC emissions to much lower levels. The efficiency of the low swirl natural gas engine at this NOx level is 36 percent at rated condition.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from a Vehicle Fueled with Methanol-Containing Additives for Flame Luminosity

Two additive blends proposed for improving the flame luminosity in neat methanol fuel were investigated to determine the effect of these additives on the exhaust emissions in a dual-fueled Volkswagen Jetta. The two blends contained 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan in methanol and 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol. Each blend was tested for regulated and unregulated emissions as well as a speciation of the exhaust hydrocarbons resulting from use of each fuel. The vehicle exhaust emissions from these two fuel blends were compared to the Coordinating Research Council Auto-Oil national average gasoline (RF-A), M100, and M85 blended from RF-A. Carter Maximum Incremental Reactivity Factors were applied to the speciated hydrocarbon emission results to determine the potential ozone formation for each fuel. Toxic emissions as defined in the 1990 Clean Air Act were also compared for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Farm, Construction, and Industrial Engines and Their Impact

The research program on which this paper is based included both laboratory emission measurements and extrapolation of results to the national population of heavy-duty farm, construction, and industrial engines. Emission tests were made on four gasoline engines and eight diesel engines typical of those used in F, C, and I equipment. Gaseous and particulate emissions were measured during engine operation on well-accepted steady-state procedures, and diesel smoke was measured during both steady-state conditions and the Federal smoke test cycle. Emissions measured were hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aliphatic aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulate, and smoke. Emission of sulfur oxides (SOx) was estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and both evaporative and blowby hydrocarbons were also estimated where applicable (gasoline engines only). Data on emissions obtained from this study were compared with those available in the literature, where possible.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions from Two Natural Gas-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines

The use of compressed natural gas as an alternative to conventional fuels has received a great deal of attention as a strategy for reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. In many cases, regulatory action has been taken to displace diesel fuel with natural gas in truck and bus applications. Emissions results of heavy-duty transient FTP testing of two Cummins L10-240G natural gas engines are presented. Regulated emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons, total hydrocarbons, CO, NOx, and particulate were characterized, along with emissions of formaldehyde. The effects of air/fuel ratio adjustments on these emissions were explored, as well as the effectiveness of catalytic aftertreatment in reducing exhaust emissions. Compared to typical heavy-duty diesel engine emissions, CNG-fueled engines using exhaust aftertreatment have great potential for meeting future exhaust emission standards, although in-use durability is unproven.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Composition Effects on Ignition and Emissions

Four broad boiling range materials, representative of current and future feedstocks for diesel fuel, were processed to two levels of sulfur and aromatic content. These materials were then distilled into six to eight fractions each. The resulting 63 fuels were then characterized physically and chemically, and tested in both a constant volume combustion apparatus and a single cylinder diesel engine. The data obtained from these analyses and tests have been analyzed graphically and statistically. The results of the initial statistical analysis, reported here, indicate that the ignition quality of a fuel is dependent not only on the overall aromatic content, but also on the composition of the material formed during hydroprocessing of the aromatics. The NOx emissions, however, are related mainly to the aromatic content of the fuel, and the structure of the aromatic material.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Hydrocarbon Speciation:Key Issues and Technological Challenges

Development of methodology for diesel hydrocarbon speciation of C12-C22 compounds and the application of that methodology to determine total ozone forming potential of diesel exhaust emissions is an extremely complicated task. Methodology has already been developed for speciating C1-C12 exhaust emissions from engines and vehicles fueled with gasoline, diesel, and alternate fuels. However, very little or no information is available for exhaust speciation of C12-C22 compounds as sampling and analytical constraints make the collection and analysis of the higher molecular weight compounds extremely challenging. Key issues related to the definition of “hydrocarbons” also need to be addressed prior to promulgation of future reactivity-based legislation for diesels (e.g., Which exhaust hydrocarbon compounds actually exist in gas-phase and participate in atmospheric ozone formation?).