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Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Efficiency from an On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

1998-05-04
981394
Results from work focusing on the development of an ultra low emissions, high efficiency, natural gas-fueled heavy- duty engine are discussed in this paper. The engine under development was based on a John Deere 8.1L engine; this engine was significantly modified from its production configuration during the course of an engine optimization program funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Previous steady-state testing indicated that the modified engine would provide simultaneous reductions in nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption while maintaining equivalent or lower NOx levels. Federal Test Procedure transient tests confirmed these expectations. Very low NOx emissions, averaging 1.0 g/bhp-hr over hot-start cycles, were attained; at these conditions, reductions in engine-out nonmethane hydro-carbons emissions (NMHC) were approximately 30 percent, and fuel consumption over the cycle was also reduced relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

EHC Impact on Extended Hot Soak Periods

1995-10-01
952418
Emission performance of a late model vehicle equipped with an electrically-heated catalytic converter (EHC) system was evaluated after extended vehicle soak periods that ranged from 30 to 180 minutes. As soak periods lengthened, NMHC and CO emissions measured in hot transient driving cycles increased by 125 percent and 345 percent, respectively. These tests were baseline operations which had no resistance heating or secondary air injection to the converter system. Sources of increased NMHC and CO emissions as a function of vehicle soak time were both the converter system cool-down characteristics and engine restart calibration strategy. For soak periods of 30 and 60 minutes, EHC resistance heating without secondary air injection resulted in large improvements in NMHC and CO emission performance (i.e., 74 percent and 54 percent lower NMHC emissions versus no heat, no air operation after a 30- and 60-minute period, respectively).
Technical Paper

Reduced Cold-Start Emissions Using Rapid Exhaust Port Oxidation (REPO) in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970264
An emissions reduction strategy was developed and demonstrated to significantly reduce cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) and CO emissions from a spark ignition (SI), gasoline-fueled engine. This strategy involved cold-starting the engine with an ultra-fuel rich calibration, while metering near-stoichiometric fractions of air directly into the exhaust ports. Using this approach, exhaust constituents spontaneously ignited at the exhaust ports and burned into the exhaust manifold and exhaust pipe leading to the catalytic converter. The resulting exotherm accelerated catalyst heating and significantly decreased light-off time following a cold-start on the FTP-75 with a Ford Escort equipped with a 1.9L engine. Mass emissions measurements acquired during the first 70 seconds of the FTP-75 revealed total-HC and CO reductions of 68 and 50 percent, respectively, when compared to baseline measurements.
Technical Paper

Effect of CNG Start - Gasoline Run on Emissions from a 3/4 Ton Pick-Up Truck

1994-10-01
941916
This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start -gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24°C and at -7°C. The result was a reduction in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7°C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile.
Technical Paper

Emissions From Snowmobile Engines Using Bio-based Fuels and Lubricants

1997-10-27
978483
Snowmobile engine emissions are of concern in environmentally sensitive areas, such as Yellowstone National Park (YNP). A program was undertaken to determine potential emission benefits of use of bio-based fuels and lubricants in snowmobile engines. Candidate fuels and lubricants were evaluated using a fan-cooled 488-cc Polaris engine, and a liquid-cooled 440-cc Arctco engine. Fuels tested include a reference gasoline, gasohol (10% ethanol), and an aliphatic gasoline. Lubricants evaluated include a bio-based lubricant, a fully synthetic lubricant, a high polyisobutylene (PIB) lubricant, as well as a conventional, mineral-based lubricant. Emissions and fuel consumption were measured using a five-mode test cycle that was developed from analysis of snowmobile field operating data.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Six Natural Gas Combustion Systems for LNG Locomotive Applications

1997-10-01
972967
An experimental program to develop a practical natural gas-fueled locomotive engine was conducted. Six natural gas-fueled combustion systems for an EMD 710-type locomotive engine were developed and tested. The six systems were evaluated in terms of NOx and CO emissions, thermal efficiency, knock tolerance, and other practical considerations. Each combustion system was tested at Notch 5, 100-percent load, Notch 8, 80-percent load, and Notch 8, 100-percent load conditions. In general, all of the technologies produced significantly lower NOx emissions than the baseline diesel engine. Based on the results of the tests and other analyses, a late cycle, high-injection pressure (LaCHIP) combustion system, using a diesel pilot-ignited, late cycle injection of natural gas with a Diesel-type combustion process, was determined to provide the most practical combustion system for a natural gas-fueled, EMD 710-powered locomotive.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Diesel Particulate and NOx Using a Plasma

1994-10-01
942070
A non-thermal plasma treatment of diesel engine exhaust was effective in removing particulate (soot) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from two different light-duty diesel vehicles: an older-technology indirect-injection Toyota truck, and a newer-technology direct-injection Dodge truck. Particulate removal efficiencies and NOx conversion efficiencies were determined at space velocities up to 20,000/hr. Particulate removal efficiencies were above 60 percent for most conditions, but decreased with increasing space velocities. Conversion efficiencies for NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) were also dependent on the space velocity. The NOx conversion efficiencies were generally greater than 40 percent at space velocities less than 7000/hr. The CO concentration increased through the plasma reaction bed indicating that CO was produced by reactions in the plasma.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects and Compensation in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

1997-05-01
971706
The effect of humidity on the lean misfire limit and emissions from a lean burn, natural gas engine is described in this paper, along with a description of a practical humidity compensation method for incorporation into an electronic control system. Experiments to determine the effects of humidity on the lean limit and emissions are described. Humidity increases were shown to decrease the rate of combustion, reduce NOx emissions, and increase the levels of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Data and calculations are also presented which demonstrate that increases in humidity will cause enleanment in a typical closed loop control system utilizing a universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. A prototype system for humidity sensing and subsequent compensation based on these findings was implemented, and the system was found, through additional testing, to compensate for humidity very effectively.
Technical Paper

Use of Butane as an Alternative Fuel-Emissions from a Conversion Vehicle Using Various Blends

1995-10-01
952496
This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the regulated emissions, ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for eight butane and propane alternative fuel blends run on a light-duty vehicle, emission certified to be a California transitional low emission vehicle (TLEV) and converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Duplicate EPA FTP emission tests were conducted with each fuel. Hydrocarbon speciation was utilized to determine reactivity-adjusted non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions for one test on each fuel. Results showed that all eight fuels could allow the converted vehicle to pass California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) NMOG and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) standards. Six of the eight fuels could allow the vehicle to pass ULEV carbon monoxide (CO) standards. BUTANE has been an important gasoline blending component for many years.
Technical Paper

Formaldehyde Emission Control Technology for Methanol-Fueled Vehicles: Catalyst Selection

1992-02-01
920092
The use of methanol as a “clean fuel” appears to be a viable approach to reduce air pollution. However, concern has been expressed about potentially high formaldehyde emissions from stoichiometrically operated light-duty vehicles. This paper presents results from an emission test program conducted for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to identify and evaluate advanced catalyst technology to reduce formaldehyde emissions without compromising regulated emission control. An earlier paper presented the results of evaluating eighteen different catalyst systems on a hybrid methanol-fueled test vehicle. (1)* This paper discusses the optimization of three of these catalyst systems on four current technology methanol-fueled vehicles. Emission measurements were conducted for formaldehyde, nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), methanol, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Emissions, Their Impact, and Possible Control Techniques

1974-02-01
740627
Seven motorcycles, ranging in size from 100 to 1200 cm3, were tested for emissions characterization purposes. They were operated on the federal seven-mode test procedure (for 1971 and older light-duty vehicles), the federal LA-4 test procedure (for 1972 and later LDVs), and under a variety of steady-state conditions. Four of the machines tested had 4-stroke engines, and the other three had 2-stroke engines. Emissions which were measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbon losses were also estimated. Crankcase “blowby” emissions from one 4-stroke machine were measured. The impact of motorcycles on national pollutant totals was estimated, based on the test results and information from a variety of sources on national population and usage of motorcycles.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

1973-02-01
730633
Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Low Heat Rejection Engines

1986-03-01
860314
The paper gives a general overview of the state-of-the-art in low heat rejection (LHR) engines. It also gives experimental results obtained at SwRI with a single-cylinder research engine using an electrically heated cylinder liner to simulate LHR operation and examine the effects of increased liner temperature. It was concluded that the improvement in fuel economy from LHR operation is negligible in naturally-aspirated (NA) engines, about 7 percent in turbocharged (TC) engines and about 15 percent in turbocompound (TCO) engines. LHR operation reduces power in NA engines only. It increases NOx emissions by around 15 percent, but reduces HC and CO emissions. LHR operation offers benefits in the reduction of noise and smoke, and in operation on low cetane fuels. Much more research is needed to overcome the practical problems before LHR engines can be put into production.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Characterization of Nanophase Gold Catalysts for Emissions Control

2008-10-07
2008-01-2639
Various gold catalysts were prepared using commercial and in-house fabricated advanced catalyst supports that included mesoporous silica, mesoporous alumina, sol-gel alumina, and transition metal oxides. Gold nanoparticles were loaded on the supports by co-precipitation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange and surface functionalization techniques. The average gold particle size was ∼20nm or less. The oxidation activity of the prepared catalysts was studied using carbon monoxide and light hydrocarbons (ethylene, propylene and propane) in presence of water and CO2 and the results are presented.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Novel, Off Road, Diesel Combustion Concept

2016-04-05
2016-01-0728
There are numerous off-road diesel engine applications. In some applications there is more focus on metrics such as initial cost, packaging and transient response and less emphasis on fuel economy. In this paper a combustion concept is presented that may be well suited to these applications. The novel combustion concept operates in two distinct operation modes: lean operation at light engine loads and stoichiometric operation at intermediate and high engine loads. One advantage to the two mode approach is the ability to simplify the aftertreatment and reduce cost. The simplified aftertreatment system utilizes a non-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a relatively small lean NOx trap (LNT). Under stoichiometric operation the LNT has the ability to act as a three way catalyst (TWC) for excellent control of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects Study with In-Use Two-Stroke Motorcycles and All-Terrain-Vehicles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2518
This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and US Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on four in-use off-road two-stroke motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling. The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.
Technical Paper

Ruthenium-Based Catalyst in EGR Leg of a D-EGR Engine Offers Combustion Improvements Through Selective NOX Removal

2016-04-05
2016-01-0952
A recent collaborative research project between Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) and the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) has demonstrated that a ruthenium (Ru) catalyst is capable of converting oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions to nitrogen (N2) with high activity and selectivity. Testing was performed on coated cordierite ceramic cores using SwRI’s Universal Synthetic Gas Reactor® (USGR®). Various gas mixtures were employed, from model gas mixes to full exhaust simulant gas mixes. Activity was measured as a function of temperature, and gaseous inhibitors and promoters were identified. Different Ru supports were tested to identify ones with lowest temperature activity. A Ru catalyst can be used in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) leg of a Dedicated-EGR (D-EGR) engine [1,2], where it uses carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) present in the rich gas environment to reduce NOX to N2 with 100% efficiency and close to 100% selectivity to N2.
Technical Paper

Developmental Fuels Emissions Evaluation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3704
Emissions characterization of three, small off-road engines of less than 19 kW power rating operating on two developmental fuels and one reference fuel was performed. The two fuels were formulated to remove benzene completely, curtail sulfur, and in one blend, include a substantial proportion of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). The engines selected included one side-valve four-stroke engine, one overhead valve four-stroke engine and one handheld two-stroke engine. The engines were maintained in stock condition. Exhaust emissions from operation with the two developmental fuels were compared to those from operation with light-duty certification-grade gasoline. California Air Resources Board (CARB) Small Off-Road Engine (SORE) emissions test methods and test cycles were used to test the engines. Duplicate tests were performed on each engine using dilute sampling procedures. Hydrocarbon speciation was performed on one replicate with each fuel.
Technical Paper

On-Board Hydrogen Generation for Rapid Catalyst Light-Off

2000-06-19
2000-01-1841
This paper describes an on-vehicle demonstration of a hydrogen-heated catalyst (HHC) system for reducing the level of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions from a gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle. The HHC system incorporated an onboard electrolyzer that generates and stores hydrogen (H2) during routine vehicle operation. Stored hydrogen and supplemental air are injected upstream of a platinum-containing automotive catalyst when the engine is started. Rapid heating of the catalytic converter occurs immediately as a result of catalytic oxidation of hydrogen (H2) with oxygen (O2) on the catalyst surface. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results of the hydrogen-heated catalyst-equipped vehicle demonstrated reductions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) up to 68 and 62 percent, respectively. This study includes a brief analysis of the emissions and fuel economy effects of a 10-minute period of hydrogen generation during the FTP.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel and Aftertreatment at a Low NOx, Low Power Engine Condition

2005-10-24
2005-01-3764
Previously we reported (SAE Paper 2005-01-0475) that emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from an engine operating at low NOx conditions using Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT100) were lower than those emissions from the engine using an ultra-low sulfur (15 PPM sulfur) diesel fuel (BP15). Those tests were performed at two operating modes: Mode 6 (4.2 bar BMEP, 2300 RPM) and Mode 11 (2.62 bar BMEP, 1500 RPM). We wanted to evaluate the effect on emissions of operating the engine at low power (near idle) in conjunction with the low NOx strategy. Specifically, we report on emissions of total hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), NOx, particulates (PM), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, gas phase polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and particle phase PAH's from a DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine using a low NOx engine operating strategy at Mode 22 (1.0 bar BMEP and 1500 RPM).
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