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Technical Paper

Navigation Control in an Urban Autonomous Ground Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1037
Southwest Research Institute developed an Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) capable of navigating in urban environments. The paper first gives an overview of hardware and software onboard the vehicle. The systems onboard are classified into perception, intelligence, and command and control modules to mimic a human driver. Perception deals with sensing from the world and translating it into situation awareness. This awareness is then fed into intelligence modules. Intelligence modules take inputs from the user to understand the need to navigate from its current location to another destination and, then, generate a path between them on urban, drivable surfaces using its internal urban database. Situational awareness helps intelligence to update the path in real time by avoiding any static/moving obstacles while following traffic rules.
Technical Paper

Control System Development for Retrofit Automated Manual Transmissions

2009-12-13
2009-28-0001
For transmission suppliers tooled primarily for producing manual transmissions, retrofitting a manual transmission with actuators and a controller is business viable. It offers a low cost convenience for the consumer without losing fuel economy when compared to torque converter type automatics. For heavy duty truck fleets even the estimated 3% gain in fuel economy that the Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) offers over the manual transmission can result in lower operational costs. This paper provides a case study using a light duty transmission retrofitted with electric actuation for gears and the clutch. A high level description of the control algorithms and hardware is included. Clutch control is the most significant component of the AMT controller and it is addressed in detail during operations such as vehicle launch from rest, launch from coast and launch on grades.
Technical Paper

Mild Regenerative Braking to Enhance Fuel Economy via Lowered Engine Load Due to Alternator

2008-10-12
2008-01-2560
Brake energy recovery is one of the key components in today's hybrid vehicles that allows for increased fuel economy. Typically, major engineering changes are required in the drivetrain to achieve these gains. The objective of this paper is to present a concept of capturing brake energy in a mild hybrid approach without any major modifications to the drivetrain or other vehicular systems. With fuel costs rising, the additional component cost incurred in the presented concept may be recovered quickly. In today's vehicles, alternators supply the electrical power for the engine and vehicle accessories whenever the engine is running. As vehicle electrical demands increase, this load is an ever-increasing part of the engine's output, negatively impacting fuel economy. By using a regenerative device (alternator) on the drive shaft (or any other part of the power train), electrical energy can be captured during braking.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2274
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. This paper describes such a simulation framework that can be used to predict fuel economy of series hydraulic hybrid vehicle for any specified driver demand schedule (drive cycle), developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The key components of the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle are modeled using a combination of first principles and empirical data. A simplified driver model is included to follow the specified drive cycle.
Technical Paper

An Engine Start/Stop System for Improved Fuel Economy

2007-04-16
2007-01-1777
During city traffic or heavily congested roads, a vehicle can consume a substantial amount of fuel idling when the vehicle is stopped. Due to regulation enforcement, auto manufacturers are developing systems to increase the mileage and reduce emissions. Turning off the engine at traffic lights and regenerative braking systems are simple ways to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In order to develop strong manufacturer and consumer interest, this type of operation needs to be automated such that the stop/start functionality requires no driver interaction and takes place without the intervention of the vehicle operator. Valeo Electrical Systems has developed such a system that replaces the OEM engine alternator with a starter/alternator driven by a standard multi-ribbed V belt. To avoid a break and dual voltage network, this system is based on a 12V electrical system using an Enhanced Power Supply.
Technical Paper

Accessory Electrification in Class 8 Tractors

2006-04-03
2006-01-0215
Fuel costs to operate large trucks have risen substantially in the last few years and, based on petroleum supply/demand curves, that trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Non-propulsion or parasitic loads in a large truck account for a significant percentage of overall engine load, leading to reductions in overall vehicle fuel economy. Electrification of parasitic loads offers a way of minimizing non-propulsion engine loads, using the full motive force of the engine for propulsion and maximizing vehicle fuel economy. This paper covers the integration and testing of electrified accessories, powered by a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) in a Class 8 tractor. It is a continuation of the efforts initially published in SAE paper 2005-01-0016.
Technical Paper

Electric Air Conditioning for Class 8 Tractors

2006-04-03
2006-01-0165
Air conditioning and heating of heavy-duty truck cabs is an important contributor to engine efficiency, fuel economy and driver comfort. The air conditioner condenser coil and engine radiator typically share a common cooling fan, making it necessary to run the large engine cooling fan to provide condenser cooling. Engagement of the radiator cooling fan consumes a large amount of energy, further contributing to engine exhaust and noise emissions. Even under moderate temperature conditions, when the conventional engine-driven air conditioning compressor is not in use, the belt drive system adds a small speed-dependent parasitic load to the engine. Electrically driven air conditioning systems have the potential for lower energy consumption than their mechanical counterparts: Electrically driven air conditioning systems can reduce engine idle time by decoupling the air conditioner system from the engine cooling fan while offering near zero parasitic load when not in use.
Technical Paper

42-Volt Electric Air Conditioning System Commissioning and Control for a Class-8 Tractor

2004-03-08
2004-01-1478
The electrification of accessories using a fuel cell as an auxiliary power unit reduces the load on the engine and provides opportunities to increase propulsion performance or reduce engine displacement. The SunLine™ Class 8 tractor electric accessory integration project is a United States Army National Automotive Center (NAC™) initiative in partnership with Cummins Inc., Dynetek™ Industries Ltd., General Dynamics C4 Systems, Acumentrics™ Corporation, Michelin North America, Engineered Machine Products (EMP™), Peterbilt™ Motors Company, Modine™ Manufacturing and Masterflux™. Southwest Research Institute is the technical integration contractor to SunLine™ Services Group. In this paper the SunLine™ tractor electric Air Conditioning (AC) system is described and the installation of components on the tractor is illustrated. The AC system has been designed to retrofit into an existing automotive system and every effort was made to maintain OEM components whenever modifications were made.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of a Hydrostatic Powertrain in the Presence of Accessory Loads

2002-03-19
2002-01-1417
In off-highway applications the engine torque is distributed between the transmission (propulsion) and other accessories such as power steering, air conditioning and implements. Electronic controls offer the opportunity to more efficiently manage the control of the engine and transmission as an integrated system. This paper deals with development of a steepest descent algorithm for maximizing the efficiency of hydrostatic transmission along with the engine in the presence of accessory load. The methodology is illustrated with an example. The strategy can be extended to the full hydro-mechanical configuration as required. Applications of this approach include adjusting for component wear and intelligent energy management between different accessories for possible size reduction of powertrain components. The potential benefits of this strategy are improved fuel efficiency and operator productivity.
Technical Paper

Electrification and Integration of Accessories on a Class-8 Tractor

2005-04-11
2005-01-0016
This paper describes installation and testing of electrified engine accessories and fuel cell auxiliary power units for a Class-8 tractor. A 2.4 kW fuel cell APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) has been added to supply a 42 V power supply for electrification of air conditioning and water pump systems. A 42/12 V dual alternator was used to replace the OEM alternator to provide safety back-up in case of fuel cell failure. A QNX Real Time Operating System-based (RTOS) Rapid Prototype Electronic Control System (RPECS™), developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI™), is used for supervisory control and coordination between accessories and engine. A Controller Area Network (CAN) interface, from the engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU), and the RS232 interface, from the fuel cell controllers, provide system data and control for RPECS. Custom wiring to the hydrogen, water pump, and air conditioning systems also provide data to RPECS. The water pump system controller is autonomous.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation, and Hardware-in-the-Loop Transmission Test System Software Development

2003-03-03
2003-01-0673
This paper describes the development of a generic test cell software designed to overcome many vehicle-component testing difficulties by introducing modern, real-time control and simulation capabilities directly to laboratory test environments. Successfully demonstrated in a transmission test cell system, this software eliminated the need for internal combustion engines (ICE) and test-track vehicles. It incorporated the control of an advanced AC induction motor that electrically simulated the ICE and a DC dynamometer that electrically replicated vehicle loads. Engine behaviors controlled by the software included not only the average crankshaft torque production but also engine inertia and firing pulses, particularly during shifts. Vehicle loads included rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, grade, and more importantly, vehicle inertia corresponding to sport utility, light truck, or passenger cars.
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