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Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Secondary Circuit Model Calibration Using Spark Calorimeter Testing

The presented work describes how spark calorimeter testing was used for parametric study and secondary circuit model calibration. Tests were conducted at different pressures, sparkplug gaps and supplied primary energies. The conversion efficiency increases and the spark duration decreases when the gas pressure or the sparkplug gap size is increased. Both gas pressure and sparkplug gas size increase the positive column voltage which represents part of the electrical energy delivered to the gas. The opposite direction occurs when the supplied primary energy is increased. The testing results were then used to calibrate the secondary circuit model which consisted of the sparkplug, the sparkplug gap and the secondary wiring. A step-by-step method was used to calibrate the three constants of the model to match the calculated delivered energy with test data during arc / glow phase.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Novel, Off Road, Diesel Combustion Concept

There are numerous off-road diesel engine applications. In some applications there is more focus on metrics such as initial cost, packaging and transient response and less emphasis on fuel economy. In this paper a combustion concept is presented that may be well suited to these applications. The novel combustion concept operates in two distinct operation modes: lean operation at light engine loads and stoichiometric operation at intermediate and high engine loads. One advantage to the two mode approach is the ability to simplify the aftertreatment and reduce cost. The simplified aftertreatment system utilizes a non-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a relatively small lean NOx trap (LNT). Under stoichiometric operation the LNT has the ability to act as a three way catalyst (TWC) for excellent control of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition in a Pre-Mixed Engine: The Effect of Focal Volume and Energy Density on Stability and the Lean Operating Limit

A series of tests using an open beam laser ignition system in an engine run on pre-mixed, gaseous fuels were performed. The ignition system for the engine was a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. A single cylinder research engine was run on pre-mixed iso-butane and propane to determine the lean limit of the engine using laser ignition. In addition, the effect of varying the energy density of the ignition kernel was investigated by changing the focal volume and by varying laser energy. The results indicate that for a fixed focal volume, there is a threshold beyond which increasing the energy density [kJ/m3] yields little or no benefit. In contrast, increasing the energy density by reducing the focal volume size decreases lean performance once the focal volume is reduced past a certain point. The effect of ignition location relative to different surfaces in the engine was also investigated. The results show a slight bias in favor of igniting closer to a surface with low thermal conductivity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Water on Soot Formation Chemistry

A combined, experimental and numerical program is presented. This work summarizes an internal research effort conducted at Southwest Research Institute. Meeting new, stringent emissions regulations for diesel engines requires a way to reduce NOx and soot emissions. Most emissions reduction strategies reduce one pollutant while increasing the other. Water injection is one of the few promising emissions reduction techniques with the potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx in diesel engines. While it is widely accepted that water reduces NOx via a thermal effect, the mechanisms behind the reduction of soot are not well understood. The water could reduce the soot via physical, thermal, or chemical effects. To aid in developing water injection strategies, this project's goal was to determine how water enters the soot formation chemistry.
Journal Article

A Study Isolating the Effect of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on Gasoline Engine Combustion Chamber Development

A unique single cylinder engine was used to assess engine performance and combustion characteristics at three different strokes, with all other variables held constant. The engine utilized a production four-valve, pentroof cylinder head with an 86mm bore. The stock piston was used, and a variable deck height design allowed three crankshafts with strokes of 86, 98, and 115mm to be tested. The compression ratio was also held constant. The engine was run with a controlled boost-to-backpressure ratio to simulate turbocharged operation, and the valve events were optimized for each operating condition using intake and exhaust cam phasers. EGR rates were swept from zero to twenty percent under low and high speed conditions, at MBT and maximum retard ignition timings. The increased stroke engines demonstrated efficiency gains under all operating conditions, as well as measurably reduced 10-to-90 percent burn durations.
Journal Article

Effects of Variable Speed Supercharging Using a Continuously Variable Planetary on Fuel Economy and Low Speed Torque

This paper describes advances in variable speed supercharging, including benefits for both fuel economy and low speed torque improvement. This work is an extension of the work described in SAE Paper 2012-01-0704 [8]. Using test stand data and state-of-the-art vehicle simulation software, a NuVinci continuously variable planetary (CVP) transmission driving an Eaton R410 supercharger on a 2.2 liter diesel was compared to the same base engine/vehicle with a turbocharger to calculate vehicle fuel economy. The diesel engine was tuned for Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions. Results are presented using several standard drive cycles. A Ford Mustang equipped with a 4.6 liter SI engine and prototype variable speed supercharger has also been constructed and tested, showing low speed torque increases of up to 30%. Dynamometer test results from this effort are presented. The combined results illustrate the promise of variable speed supercharging as a viable option for the next generation of engines.
Journal Article

A High Efficiency, Dilute Gasoline Engine for the Heavy-Duty Market

A 13 L HD diesel engine was converted to run as a flame propagation engine using the HEDGE™ Dual-Fuel concept. This concept consists of pre-mixed gasoline ignited by a small amount of diesel fuel - i.e., a diesel micropilot. Due to the large bore size and relatively high compression ratio for a pre-mixed combustion engine, high levels of cooled EGR were used to suppress knock and reduce the engine-out emissions of the oxides of nitrogen and particulates. Previous work had indicated that the boosting of high dilution engines challenges most modern turbocharging systems, so phase I of the project consisted of extensive simulation efforts to identify an EGR configuration that would allow for high levels of EGR flow along the lug curve while minimizing pumping losses and combustion instabilities from excessive backpressure. A potential solution that provided adequate BTE potential was consisted of dual loop EGR systems to simultaneously flow high pressure and low pressure loop EGR.
Journal Article

Methanol Fuel Testing on Port Fuel Injected Internal-Only EGR, HPL-EGR and D-EGR® Engine Configurations

The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
Journal Article

Design and Implementation of a D-EGR® Mixer for Improved Dilution and Reformate Distribution

The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
Journal Article

The Interaction between Fuel Anti-Knock Index and Reformation Ratio in an Engine Equipped with Dedicated EGR

Experiments were performed on a small displacement (< 2 L), high compression ratio, 4 cylinder, port injected gasoline engine equipped with Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) technology using fuels with varying anti-knock properties. Gasolines with anti-knock indices of 84, 89 and 93 anti-knock index (AKI) were tested. The engine was operated at a constant nominal EGR rate of ∼25% while varying the reformation ratio in the dedicated cylinder from a ϕD-EGR = 1.0 - 1.4. Testing was conducted at selected engine speeds and constant torque while operating at knock limited spark advance on the three fuels. The change in combustion phasing as a function of the level of overfuelling in the dedicated cylinder was documented for all three fuels to determine the tradeoff between the reformation ratio required to achieve a certain knock resistance and the fuel octane rating.
Journal Article

Boosting Simulation of High Efficiency Alternative Combustion Mode Engines

Four high-efficiency alternative combustion modes were modeled to determine the potential brake thermal efficiency (BTE) relative to a traditional lean burn compression ignition diesel engine with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment. The four combustion modes include stoichiometric pilot-ignited gasoline with EGR dilution (SwRI HEDGE technology), dual fuel premixed compression ignition (University of Wisconsin), gasoline partially premixed combustion (Lund University), and homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) (SwRI Clean Diesel IV). For each of the alternative combustion modes, zero-D simulation of the peak torque condition was used to show the expected BTE. For all alternative combustion modes, simulation showed that the BTE was very dependent on dilution levels, whether air or EGR. While the gross indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) could be shown to improve as the dilution was increased, the required pumping work decreased the BTE at EGR rates above 40%.
Journal Article

A Demonstration of Dedicated EGR on a 2.0 L GDI Engine

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) converted a 2012 Buick Regal GS to use an engine with Dedicated EGR™ (D-EGR™). D-EGR is an engine concept that uses fuel reforming and high levels of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) to achieve very high levels of thermal efficiency [1]. To accomplish reformation of the gasoline in a cost-effective, energy efficient manner, a dedicated cylinder is used for both the production of EGR and reformate. By operating the engine in this manner, many of the sources of losses from traditional reforming technology are eliminated and the engine can take full advantage of the benefits of reformate. The engine in the vehicle was modified to add the following components: the dedicated EGR loop, an additional injector for delivering extra fuel for reformation, a modified boost system that included a supercharger, high energy dual coil offset (DCO) ignition and other actuators used to enable the control of D-EGR combustion.
Journal Article

Dedicated EGR Vehicle Demonstration

Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) is an EGR strategy that uses in-cylinder reformation to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. The entire exhaust of a sub-group of power cylinders (dedicated cylinders) is routed directly into the intake. These cylinders are run fuel-rich, producing H2 and CO (reformate), with the potential to improve combustion stability, knock tolerance and burn duration. A 2.0 L turbocharged D-EGR engine was packaged into a 2012 Buick Regal and evaluated on drive cycle performance. City and highway fuel consumption were reduced by 13% and 9%, respectively. NOx + NMOG were 31 mg/mile, well below the Tier 2 Bin 5 limit and just outside the Tier 3 Bin 30 limit (30 mg/mile).