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Technical Paper

Emissions From Snowmobile Engines Using Bio-based Fuels and Lubricants

1997-10-27
978483
Snowmobile engine emissions are of concern in environmentally sensitive areas, such as Yellowstone National Park (YNP). A program was undertaken to determine potential emission benefits of use of bio-based fuels and lubricants in snowmobile engines. Candidate fuels and lubricants were evaluated using a fan-cooled 488-cc Polaris engine, and a liquid-cooled 440-cc Arctco engine. Fuels tested include a reference gasoline, gasohol (10% ethanol), and an aliphatic gasoline. Lubricants evaluated include a bio-based lubricant, a fully synthetic lubricant, a high polyisobutylene (PIB) lubricant, as well as a conventional, mineral-based lubricant. Emissions and fuel consumption were measured using a five-mode test cycle that was developed from analysis of snowmobile field operating data.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Strategies for Small Utility Engines

1991-09-01
911807
Recent approval of emission standards for small utility engines by the California Air Resources Board(1)* suggests that substantial reductions in emissions from small utility engines will soon be required. While 1994 standards may be met with simple engine adjustments or modifications, 1999 standards are much more stringent and may require the use of catalysts in conjunction with other emission reduction technologies. Assessing the feasibility of candidate emission control strategies is an important first step. Various emission reduction technologies were applied to three different 4-stroke engines. Emission tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of air/fuel ratio changes, thermal oxidation, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic oxidation with and without supplemental air. Results of these evaluations, along with implications for further work, are presented. One engine's emissions were reduced below the levels of 1999 ARB standards.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Converter Performance and Durability

1993-03-01
930222
Natural gas-fueled vehicles impose unique requirements on exhaust aftertreatment systems. Methane conversion, which is very difficult for conventional automotive catalysts, may be required, depending on future regulatory directions. Three-way converter operating windows for simultaneous conversion of HC, CO, and NOx are considerably more narrow with gas engine exhaust. While several studies have demonstrated acceptable fresh converter performance, aged performance remains a concern. This paper presents the results of a durability study of eight catalytic converters specifically developed for natural gas engines. The converters were aged for 300 hours on a natural gas-fueled 7.0L Chevrolet engine operated at net stoichiometry. Catalyst performance was evaluated using both air/fuel traverse engine tests and FTP vehicle tests. Durability cycle severity and a comparison of results for engine and vehicle tests are discussed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects Study with Small (<19kW) Spark-Ignited Off-Road Equipment Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2517
This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and the United States Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on nine types of off-road equipment with small (<19kW) spark-ignited engines including handheld and non-handheld equipment utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling. The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects Study with In-Use Two-Stroke Motorcycles and All-Terrain-Vehicles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2518
This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and US Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on four in-use off-road two-stroke motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling. The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.
Technical Paper

Development of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3302
The purpose of this project was to modify existing small off-road engines to meet ARB's originally proposed 1999 emissions standards. A particular point was to show that compliance could be attained without the need to redesign the base engines. Four high-sales volume, ARB-certified 1997 model engines were selected from the following categories: 1) handheld two-stroke engine, 2) handheld four-stroke engine, 3) non-handheld side-valve engine, and 4) a non-handheld overhead-valve engine. Engines were selected, procured, and baseline emission tested using applicable ARB test procedures. Appropriate emission control strategies were then selected and applied to the four engines. Emission reduction strategies used included air/fuel ratio optimization, and catalytic aftertreatment. Following the development of the four emission-controlled engines, final, certification-quality emissions tests were performed. All four engines met ARB's original 1999 Tier 2 emission standards after development.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3283
A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Snowmobile Particulate Emissions

2000-06-19
2000-01-2003
The primary goal of this project was to characterize particulate emissions from a snowmobile engine through measurement of particulate matter volatile organic fraction (VOF), particle size, and biological activity. Emissions were evaluated using both a mineral oil and a biosynthetic oil. Basic criteria pollutants were also measured from diluted exhaust using conventional techniques. Particulate matter volatile organic fraction was determined using a gas chromatographic method (DFI/GC). Particle size was characterized using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and particulate matter biological activity was measured using a modification of the Ames bioassay procedure. Results revealed that more than 99 percent of the particles were ultrafine (Dp<100nm), with a peak concentration in the nanoparticle (Dp<50nm) size range. It was also observed that the use of a biosynthetic lubricant increased both volatile and total PM mass emissions compared to the mineral lubricant.
Technical Paper

Marine Outboard and Personal Watercraft Engine Gaseous Emissions, and Particulate Emission Test Procedure Development

2004-09-27
2004-32-0093
The U.S. EPA and the California Air Resources Board have adopted standards to reduce emissions from recreational marine vessels. Existing regulations focus on reducing hydrocarbons. There are no regulations on particulate emissions; particulate is expected to be reduced as a side benefit of hydrocarbon control. The goal of this study was to develop a sampling methodology to measure particulate emissions from marine outboard and personal watercraft engines. Eight marine engines of various engine technologies and power output were tested. Emissions measured in this program included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen. Particulate emissions will be presented in a follow-up paper.
Technical Paper

42 Catalytic Reduction of Marine Sterndrive Engine Emissions

2002-10-29
2002-32-1811
A 2001 General Motors 4.3 liter V-6 marine engine was baseline emissions tested and then equipped with catalysts. Emission reduction effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were also explored. Because of a U.S. Coast Guard requirement that inboard engine surface temperatures be kept below 200°F, the engine's exhaust system, including the catalysts, was water-cooled. Engine emissions were measured using the ISO-8178-E4 5-mode steady-state test for recreational marine engines. In baseline configuration, the engine produced 16.6 g HC+NOx/kW-hr, and 111 g CO/kW-hr. In closed-loop control with catalysts, HC+NOx emissions were reduced by 75 percent to 4.1 g/kW-hr, and CO emissions were reduced by 36 percent to 70 g/kW-hr of CO. The catalyzed engine was then installed in a Sea Ray 190 boat, and tested for water reversion on both fresh and salt water using National Marine Manufacturers Association procedures.
Technical Paper

LOW-EMISSION SNOWMOBILES - THE 2001 SAE CLEAN SNOWMOBILE CHALLENGE

2001-12-01
2001-01-1832
The first Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) was held in Jackson Hole, Wyoming in late March of 2000.(1)* It drew public attention to environmental issues associated with recreational products such as snowmobiles, and encouraged development of novel solutions through this SAE-sponsored student competition. While much good information was obtained, one area needing improvement was emissions measurement. In 2000, snowmobile emissions were measured using a drive-by infrared-type device. While this provided a rough indication of emission levels, more accurate data was desired to better reflect progress in reducing emissions. For this year's competition, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) assembled the equipment necessary to provide brake-specific emissions measurement on-site. A truck-mounted mobile unit was outfitted with laboratory-grade instrumentation for measurement of HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and O2. A snowmobile chassis dynamometer was used to load the engines.
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