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Technical Paper

Engine Parameter Optimization for Improved Engine and Drive Cycle Efficiency for Boosted, GDI Engines with Different Boosting System Architecture

As boosted, direct injected gasoline engines become more prevalent in the automotive market, the boosting system architecture and efficiency are intimately entwined with the efficiency and performance of the engine. Single-stage as well as two-stage boosting systems, comprising of either two turbochargers or a supercharger in combination with a turbocharger, are potential configurations. When combining an internal combustion engine with boosting hardware, a mechanical, fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic coupling is created and the system as a whole will need to be treated as such.
Technical Paper

Electronic Fuel System Development for Air-Cooled Motorcycles

Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) has developed electronic fuel injection (EFI) systems to be used on air-cooled motorcycle applications. In order to explore differences in application requirements between large and small displacement motorcycles, a large twin-cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled motorcycle, and a small single cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled motorcycle were utilized. The primary objectives of this study were to meet current and future emissions regulations for motorcycle exhaust emissions, to raise fuel economy, and to improve overall engine performance. The EFI development required baseline testing, control system setup, design of intake system components, installation of sensors and control unit, fuel system integration, steady-state and transient calibration, fuel consumption development, emissions development, performance improvement, and acceleration testing.
Journal Article

The Effects of Piston Crevices and Injection Strategy on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, has developed into a topic of major interest due to its potential for engine damage. Previous experiments associated increases in hydrocarbon emissions with the blowdown event of an LSPI cycle [1]. Also, the same experiments showed that there was a dependency of the LSPI activity on fuel and/or lubricant compositions [1]. Based on these findings it was hypothesized that accumulated hydrocarbons play a role in LSPI and are consumed during LSPI events. A potential source for accumulated HC is the top land piston crevice.
Journal Article

Lubricant Reactivity Effects on Gasoline Spark Ignition Engine Knock

The performance and efficiency of spark ignited gasoline engines is often limited by end-gas knock. In particular, when operating the engine at high loads, combustion phasing is retarded to prevent knock, resulting in a significant reduction of engine efficiency. Since the invention of the spark ignition (SI) engine, much work has been devoted to improve and regulate fuel characteristics, such as octane number, to suppress engine knock. The auto-ignition tendency of the engine lubricant however, as described by cetane number (CN), has received little attention, as it has been assumed that engine lubricant effects on knock are insignificant, primarily due to low levels of average oil consumption. However, with modern SI engines being developed to operate at higher loads and closer to knock limits, the reactivity of engine lubricants can impact the knock behavior.
Journal Article

Engine Operating Condition and Gasoline Fuel Composition Effects on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in High-Performance Spark Ignited Gasoline Engines

Downsizing is an important concept to reduce fuel consumption as well as emissions of spark ignition engines. Engine displacement is reduced in order to shift operating points from lower part load into regions of the operating map with higher efficiency and thus lower specific fuel consumption [ 1 ]. Since maximum power in full load operation decreases due to the reduction of displacement, engines are boosted (turbocharging or supercharging), which leads to a higher specific loading of the engines. Hence, a new combustion phenomenon has been observed at high loads and low engine speed and is referred to as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition or LSPI. In cycles with LSPI, the air/fuel mixture is ignited prior to the spark which results in the initial flame propagation quickly transforming into heavy engine knock. Very high pressure rise rates and peak cylinder pressures could exceed design pressure limits, which in turn could lead to degradation of the engine.
Journal Article

The Effect of EGR on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines - where the engine displacement is reduced and turbocharging is employed to increase specific power - a new combustion phenomenon, described as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), has been exhibited. LSPI is characterized as a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, which has the potential to cause degradation of the engine. However, because LSPI events occur only sporadically and in an uncontrolled fashion, it is difficult to identify the causes for this phenomenon and to develop solutions to suppress it. Some countermeasures exist that OEMs can use to avoid LSPI, such as load limiting, but these have drawbacks.