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Technical Paper

Effects of Water on Distillate Fuel Lubricity

The continuing trend toward “cleaner” distillate fuels has prompted concerns about the lubricity characteristics of current and future distillates. Since many U.S. Navy ships utilize seawater-compensated fuel tanks to maintain the ship's trim, the Navy performed a detailed study in order to better understand the relationship between fuel water content and lubricity characteristics. The lubricity test methods, modified for this study, were ASTM D 6078 (SLBOCLE), D 6079 (HFRR), and D 5001 (BOCLE). The results indicated that, with few exceptions, there was generally no evidence of a correlation between the water content of the fuels and the corresponding lubricity measurements as determined by the laboratory tests.
Technical Paper

Survey of Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels and Aviation Kerosenes from U.S. Military Installations

In support of the Department of Defense goal to streamline procurements, the Army recently decided to discontinue use of VV-F-800D as the purchase specification for diesel fuel being supplied to continental United States military installations. The Army will instead issue a commercial item description for direct fuel deliveries under the Post-Camp-Station (PCS) contract bulletin program. In parallel, the Defense Fuel Supply Center and the U.S. Army Mobility Technology Center-Belvoir (at Ft. Belvoir, VA) initiated a fuel survey with the primary objective to assess the general quality and lubricity characteristics of low sulfur diesel fuels being supplied to military installations under the PCS system. Under this project, diesel fuel delivery samples were obtained from selected military installations and analyzed according to a predetermined protocol.
Technical Paper

Filtration Requirements and Evaluation Procedure for a Rotary Injection Fuel Pump

A cooperative research and development program was organized to determine the critical particle size of abrasive debris that will cause significant wear in rotary injection fuel pumps. Various double-cut test dusts ranging from 0-5 to 10-20 μm were evaluated to determine which caused the pumps to fail. With the exception of the 0-5-μm test dust, all other test dust ranges evaluated caused failure in the rotary injection pumps. After preliminary testing, it was agreed that the 4-8-μm test dust would be used for further testing. Analysis revealed that the critical particle size causing significant wear is 6-7 μm. This is a smaller abrasive particle size than reported in previously published literature. A rotary injection pump evaluation methodology was developed. During actual operation, the fuel injection process creates a shock wave that propagates back up the fuel line to the fuel filter.
Technical Paper

Effect of Low-Lubricity Fuels on Diesel Injection Pumps - Part I: Field Performance

The U.S. Department of Defense has adopted a concept in which a single fuel will be used on the battlefield; diesel fuel will be replaced by JP-8/JP-5/Jet A-1 in compression ignition engines, thereby decreasing the fuel logistics burden. JP-8 fuel has successfully undergone extensive testing in both the laboratory and in field trials. However, increased failure rates for fuel-lubricated rotary injection pump components operating on Jet A-1 aviation turbine fuel were reported during Operation Desert Shield. This paper is the first of two and describes the disassembly and failure analysis of twelve rotary fuel injection pumps that operated on Jet A-1. Also disassembled as a baseline for comparison were three additional pumps from civilian vehicles that had operated on commercial diesel. Each of the pumps had a unique service history, making quantitative comparison difficult.
Technical Paper

Effect of Low-Lubricity Fuels on Diesel Injection Pumps - Part II:Laborator Evaluation

This paper is the second of two that describe the effects of low-lubricity fuels on diesel injection pump performance. The first paper describes the primary failure mechanisms and wear processes in a number of failed pumps removed from both military and civilian vehicles that had been operated on Jet A-1 and diesel fuels. However, the multitude of unregulated parameters in practical operation renders quantitative comparison between different fuels and pump combinations impractical. This paper describes the degradation in pump performance and the wear processes associated with fuels of varying lubricity in the well-defined environment of a pump test stand. The test methodology concentrates on those areas previously demonstrated to be most susceptible to wear. The results indicate that pump durability is reduced by highly refined low-viscosity fuels, but may be successfully counteracted by either improved metallurgy or lubricity additives.
Technical Paper

Effects of High Temperature and Pressure on Fuel Lubricated Wear

While standardized laboratory-scale wear tests are available to predict the lubricity of liquid fuels under ambient conditions, the reality is that many injection systems operate at elevated temperatures where fuel vaporization is too excessive to perform the measure satisfactorily. The present paper describes a High Pressure High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HPHFRR) purposely designed to evaluate fuel lubricity in a pressurized environment at temperatures of up to 300°C. The remaining test parameters are identical to those of the widely standardized High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results obtained using the HPHFRR indicate that wear rate with poor lubricity fuels is strongly sensitive to both temperature and oxygen partial pressure and may be orders of magnitude higher than at ambient conditions. Surprisingly however, wear rate was found to decrease dramatically at temperatures above 100°C, possibly due to evaporation of dissolved moisture.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Lubricity

The United States and Europe are mandating increasingly severe diesel fuel specifications, particularly with respect to sulfur content, and in some areas, aromatics content. This trend is directed towards reducing vehicle exhaust emissions and is generally beneficial to fuel quality, ignition ratings, and stability. However, laboratory studies, as well as recent field experience in Sweden and the United States, indicate a possible reduction in the ability of fuels to lubricate sliding components within the fuel injection system. These factors, combined with the trend toward increasing injection pressure in modern engine design, are likely to result in reduced durability and failure of the equipment to meet long-term emissions compliance. The U.S. Army Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility (BFLRF) located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) developed an accelerated wear test that predicts the effects of fuel lubricity on injection system durability.