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Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting Location on the HC Emissions from SI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0502
The effect of combustion chamber wall-wetting on the emissions of unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons (HCs) from gasoline-fueled SI engines was investigated experimentally. A spark-plug mounted directional injection probe was developed to study the fate of liquid fuel which impinges on different surfaces of the combustion chamber, and to quantify its contribution to the HC emissions from direct-injected (DI) and port-fuel injected (PFI) engines. With this probe, a controlled amount of liquid fuel was deposited on a given location within the combustion chamber at a desired crank angle while the engine was operated on pre-mixed LPG. Thus, with this technique, the HC emissions due to in-cylinder wall wetting were studied independently of all other HC sources. Results from these tests show that the location where liquid fuel impinges on the combustion chamber has a very important effect on the resulting HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI): Benefits, Compromises, and Future Engine Applications

1999-10-25
1999-01-3682
Large reductions in low-load NOx emissions can be obtained by replacing conventional Diesel or spark ignited combustion by HCCI combustion in reciprocating engines. Currently, HCCI combustion is limited to operating conditions with lean air/fuel ratios or large amounts of EGR. However, a numerical model shows that, even if high equivalence ratio HCCI operation were satisfactorily attained, the NOx reduction potential vs. DI-Diesel combustion would be much smaller. Thus, high-load HCCI operation may best be obtained through highly boosted fuel-lean operation. Alternatively, HCCI combustion may be suited well for “dual mode” engine applications, in which spark ignition or conventional Diesel combustion is used to obtain full load. Avoiding wall impingement with heavy fuels is critical for achieving good emissions and fuel consumption, and it appears that a large degree of mixture inhomogeneity can be tolerated from a NOx benefit standpoint.
Technical Paper

Further Experiments on the Effects of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting on HC Emissions from Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3661
A recently developed in-cylinder fuel injection probe was used to deposit a small amount of liquid fuel on various surfaces within the combustion chamber of a 4-valve engine that was operating predominately on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A fast flame ionization detector (FFID) was used to examine the engine-out emissions of unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons (HCs). Injector shut-off was used to examine the rate of liquid fuel evaporation. The purpose of these experiments was to provide insights into the HC formation mechanism due to in-cylinder wall wetting. The variables investigated were the effects of engine operating conditions, coolant temperature, in-cylinder wetting location, and the amount of liquid wall wetting. The results of the steady state tests show that in-cylinder wall wetting is an important source of HC emissions both at idle and at a part load, cruise-type condition. The effects of wetting location present the same trend for idle and part load conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Intake Timing Effects on the Cold Start Behavior of a Spark Ignition Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3622
Recent advances in Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) methods have led to development of optimized valve timing strategies for a broad range of engine operating conditions. This study focuses on the cold-start period, which begins at engine cranking and lasts for approximately 1 minute thereafter. Cold-start is characterized by poor mixture preparation due to low component temperatures, aggravated by fixed valve timing which has historically been compromised to give optimal warm engine operation. In this study, intake cam phasing was varied to explore the potential benefit in hydrocarbon emissions and driveability obtainable for cold-start. A simple experimental approach was used to investigate the potential emissions benefits realizable through intake cam phasing. High speed cylinder pressure and Fast Flame Ionization Detector (FFID) engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) measurements were made to characterize instantaneous cold-start emissions and driveability.
Technical Paper

The Heavy-Duty Gasoline Engine - An Alternative to Meet Emissions Standards of Tomorrow

2004-03-08
2004-01-0984
A technology path has been identified for development of a high efficiency, durable, gasoline engine, targeted at achieving performance and emissions levels necessary to meet heavy-duty, on-road standards of the foreseeable future. Initial experimental and numerical results for the proposed technology concept are presented. This work summarizes internal research efforts conducted at Southwest Research Institute. An alternative combustion system has been numerically and experimentally examined. The engine utilizes gasoline as the fuel, with a combination of enabling technologies to provide high efficiency operation at ultra-low emissions levels. The concept is based upon very highly-dilute combustion of gasoline at high compression ratio and boost levels. Results from the experimental program have demonstrated engine-out NOx emissions of 0.06 g/hp/hr, at single-cylinder brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) above thirty-four percent.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Laminar Burning Velocity of Multi-Component Fuel Blends for Use in High-Performance SI Engines

2003-10-27
2003-01-3185
A technique was developed for measuring the Laminar Burning Velocity (LBV) of multi-component fuel blends for use in high-performance spark-ignition engines. This technique involves the use of a centrally-ignited spherical combustion chamber, and a complementary analysis code. The technique was validated by examining several single-component fuels, and the computational procedure was extended to handle multi-component fuels without requiring detailed knowledge of their chemical composition. Experiments performed on an instrumented high-speed engine showed good agreement between the observed heat-release rates of the fuels and their predicted ranking based on the measured LBV parameters.
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