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Technical Paper

External Corrosion Resistance of CuproBraze® Radiators

2001-05-14
2001-01-1718
New technology for the manufacturing of copper/brass heat exchangers has been developed and the first automotive radiators are already in operation in vehicles. This new technology is called CuproBraze®. One of the essential questions raised is the external corrosion resistance with reference to the present soldered copper/brass radiators and to the brazed aluminium radiators. Based on the results from electrochemical measurements and from four different types of accelerated corrosion tests, the external corrosion resistance of the CuproBraze® radiators is clearly better than that of the soldered copper/brass radiators and competitive with the brazed aluminum radiators, especially as regards marine atmosphere. Due to the relatively high strength of the CuproBraze® heat exchangers, down gauging of fins and tubes in some applications is attractive. High performance coatings can ensure long lifetime from corrosion point of view, even for thin gauge heat exchangers.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-1069
The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Observation of Transient Oil Consumption with In-Cylinder Variables

1996-10-01
961910
Only a limited understanding of the oil consumption mechanism appears to exist, especially oil consumption under transient engine operating conditions. This is probably due to the difficulty in engine instrumentation for measuring not only oil consumption, but also for measuring the associated in-cylinder variables. Because of this difficulty, a relatively large number of experiments and tests are often necessary for the development of each engine design in order to achieve the target oil consumption that meets the requirements for particulate emissions standards, oil economy, and engine reliability and durability. Increased understanding and logical approaches are believed to be necessary in developing the oil-consumption reduction technology that effectively and efficiently accomplishes the tasks of low oil-consumption engine development.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of Advanced Control Techniques to Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engines

1996-10-01
961984
Advancements in natural gas engine control technology can result in natural gas engines which are more efficient, powerful, responsive, and durable than those currently available. The vast majority of hardware required to make these advancements exists or can be modified for application on natural gas engines. Given this, an investigation to develop and incorporate advanced natural gas engine control technology was completed. Advanced control techniques for equivalence ratio control, knock detection and control, misfire detection and control, and turbocharger transient surge supression are detailed in this paper. Control strategies were developed and applied to a heavy-duty on-highway natural gas engine using a personal computer-based prototyping control system. The engine control system advancements resulted in a natural gas engine with increased efficiency, power density, and response, along with reduced emissions over the current state-of-the-art in natural gas engines.
Technical Paper

Contamination Sensitivity of Automotive Components

1997-02-24
970552
System contamination caused by contaminates or small particles built-in, self-generated, or inhaled from environment presents severe problems. The problems include but are not limited to the malfunctioning of valves, pumps, seals and injectors or lock-up of these components; increased wear of bearings, piston rings, and other friction components; and degradated machine performance. In general, system contamination changes a deterministic system into a stochastic system and shortens machinery service life. In this paper, these contamination problems are discussed in categories and associated analysis, testing and computer modeling methodologies are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

1997-02-24
970531
Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Small Engine Equipped with an Electromagnetic Valve Actuation System

1998-08-11
981908
An electromagnetic valve actuation (EVA) system was developed and applied to a Kohler Command Series engine. Engine development and testing was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the performance of the EVA-equipped engine, running on natural gas, in an engine-test laboratory environment. As part of this effort, a personal computer-based engine control system, which managed the fueling, ignition, throttling, and intake/exhaust valve control functions, was developed. The evaluation included an investigation into increasing engine power output and full load efficiency, as well as increased part load efficiency. Techniques including optimized valve events as a function of operating condition, and throttleless operation using early and late intake valve closing are presented. Engine simulation results are compared with actual engine data and presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Measurements

1995-02-01
950069
A technique was demonstrated that can quantify the state of mixture preparation during the critical periods of ignition and very early flame development in a “production” spark-ignited engine. To determine the degree of stratification and vaporization two fast-response hydrocarbon (HC) probes were placed in a specially adapted spark plug. Data from the HC analyzer was correlated with cylinder pressure data to relate changes in mixture preparation to classic engine measures, such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and ignition delay.
Technical Paper

A Heavy-Fueled Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

1995-02-01
950773
The growing usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for aerial surveillance and reconnaissance in military applications calls for lightweight, reliable powerplants that burn heavy distillate fuels. While mass-produced engines exist that provide adequate power-to-weight ratio in the low power class needed for UAVs, they all use a spark-ignited combustion system that requires high octane fuels. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has embarked upon an internal research effort to design and demonstrate an engine that will meet the requirements of high power density, power output compatible with small unmanned aircraft, heavy-fuel combustion, reliable, durable construction, and producible design. This effort has culminated in the successful construction and operation of a demonstrator engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of High-Temperature Diesel Engine Liquid Lubricants

1995-10-01
952544
High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as a tool for HTL evaluation. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247°C and an oil sump temperature of 166°C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Novel Two-Stroke Engine Scavenging Arrangement: The Neutron Engine

1995-09-01
952140
A unique two-stroke engine design is investigated in which fresh mixture is introduced into the cylinder through a valve in the piston crown, and exhausted through peripheral cylinder ports. The engine behaves as a free-piston engine through a portion of the cycle when the piston lifts off the valve seat. The fresh air jet rising along the cylinder centerline effectively displaces the burned gases with little mixing of the two streams. The concept was analyzed by a combination of dynamic cycle simulation and prediction of the in-cylinder flow characteristics by multidimensional modeling. The cycle simulation program considered the dynamics of the piston during its free motion as well as under the kinematic constraints of the crank system. A zero-dimensional thermodynamic model of the cylinder was used to predict cycle pressure and temperature, indicated power, fuel consumption, and flow in and out of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time-Averaged Piston Temperatures and Surface Heat Flux Between a Direct-Fuel Injected and Carbureted Two-Stroke Engine

1998-02-23
980763
Time-averaged temperatures at critical locations on the piston of a direct-fuel injected, two-stroke, 388 cm3, research engine were measured using an infrared telemetry device. The piston temperatures were compared to data [7] of a carbureted version of the two-stroke engine, that was operated at comparable conditions. All temperatures were obtained at wide open throttle, and varying engine speeds (2000-4500 rpm, at 500 rpm intervals). The temperatures were measured in a configuration that allowed for axial heat flux to be determined through the piston. The heat flux was compared to carbureted data [8] obtained using measured piston temperatures as boundary conditions for a computer model, and solving for the heat flux. The direct-fuel-injected piston temperatures and heat fluxes were significantly higher than the carbureted piston. On the exhaust side of the piston, the direct-fuel injected piston temperatures ranged from 33-73 °C higher than the conventional carbureted piston.
Technical Paper

Coal-Water-Slurry Autoignition in a High-Speed Detroit Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941907
Autoignition of coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel in a two-stroke engine operating at 1900 RPM has been achieved. A Pump-Line-Nozzle (PLN) injection system, delivering 400mm3/injection of CWS, was installed in one modified cylinder of a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DI)C) 8V-149TI engine, while the other seven cylinders remained configured for diesel fuel. Coal Combustion was sustained by maintaining high gas and surface temperatures with a combination of hot residual gases, warm inlet air admission, ceramic insulated components and increased compression ratio. The coal-fueled cylinder generated 85kW indicated power (80 percent of rated power), and lower NOx levels with a combustion efficiency of 99.2 percent.
Technical Paper

A Non-Intrusive Method of Measuring PCV Blowby Constituents

1994-10-01
941947
A technique is presented that has been successfully demonstrated to non-intrusively and quickly sample gases typically found in PCV systems. Color Detection Tubes (CDTs) were used with a simple sampling arrangement to monitor CO2, NOx, O2, and H2O(g) at the closure line, crankcase, and PCV line. Measurements were accurate and could be made instantaneously. Short Path Thermal Desorbtion Tubes (SPTDTs) were used at the same engine locations for the characterization of fuel- and oil-derived hydrocarbon (HC) fractions and required only 50 cc samples. High engine loads caused pushover of blowby vapors as indicated by increased concentrations of CO2, NOx, H2O(g), and fuel HCs in the engines' fresh air inlets during WOT operation. Peak concentrations of blowby vapors were measured in the crankcase under no load and part throttle conditions. Oxygen concentrations always opposed the trends of CO2, NOx, and H2O(g).
Technical Paper

Injection Pressure and Intake Air Density Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a 4-Valve Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941919
Diesel engine optimization for low emissions and high efficiency involves the use of very high injection pressures. It was generally thought that increased injection pressures lead to improved fuel air mixing due to increased atomization in the fuel jet. Injection experiments in a high-pressure, high-temperature flow reactor indicated, however, that high injection pressures, in excess of 150 MPa, leads to greatly increased penetration rates and significant wall impingement. An endoscope system was used to obtain movies of combustion in a modern, 4-valve, heavy-duty diesel engine. Movies were obtained at different speeds, loads, injection pressures, and intake air pressures. The movies indicated that high injection pressure, coupled with high intake air density leads to very short ignition delay times, ignition close to the nozzle, and burning of the plumes as they traverse the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Piston Temperature Telemetry System

1992-02-01
920232
The measurement of piston temperature in a reciprocating engine has historically been a very time-consuming and expensive process. Several conditions exist in an engine that measurement equipment must be protected against. Acceleration forces near 2000 G's occur at TDC in automotive engines at rated speed. Operating temperatures inside the crankcase can range to near 150°C. To allow complete mapping of piston temperature, several measuring locations are required in the piston and data must be obtained at various engine operating conditions. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a telemetry-based system that withstands the harsh environments mentioned above. The device is attached to the underside of a piston and temperature data is transmitted to a receiving antenna in the engine crankcase. The key element of this device is a tiny power generator which utilizes the reciprocating motion of the piston to generate electricity thus allowing the transmitter to be self-powered.
Technical Paper

The Stratified Charge Glowplug Ignition (SCGI) Engine with Natural Gas Fuel

1991-09-01
911767
The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a natural gas two-stroke engine using glow plug ignition with very lean mixtures. Based on the results obtained, the term SCGI (stratified charge glow plug ignition) was coined to describe the engine. An JLO two-stroke diesel engine was converted first to a natural gas fueled spark-ignited engine for the baseline tests, and then to an SCGI engine. The SCGI engine used a gas operated valve in the cylinder head to admit the natural gas fuel, and a glow plug was used as a means to initiate the combustion. The engine was successfully run, but was found to be sensitive to various conditions such as the glow plug temperature. The engine would run very lean, to an overall equivalence ratio of 0.33, offering the potential of good fuel economy and low NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

The Theoretical Development of Vehicle Engine Cooling Airflow Models Using Incompressible Flow Methods

1991-02-01
910644
A one-dimensional incompressible flow model covering the mechanisms involved in the airflow through an automotive radiator-shroud-fan system with no heat transfer was developed. An analytical expression to approximate the experimentally determined fan performance characteristics was used in conjunction with an analytical approach for this simplified cooling airflow model, and the solution is discussed with illustrations. A major result of this model is a closed form equation relating the transient velocity of the air to the vehicle speed, pressure rise characteristics and speed of the fan, as well as the dimensions and resistance of the radiator. This provides a basis for calculating cooling airflow rate under various conditions. The results of the incompressible flow analysis were further compared with the computational results obtained with a previously developed one-dimensional, transient, compressible flow model.
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