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Technical Paper

A Study of Engine Sensitivity to Spark Plug Rim-Fire

1998-05-04
981453
A recent study of engine sensitivity revealed that spark plugs used in conventional spark-ignited gasoline-fueled engines do not always fire in the intended fashion. Rather than firing to the ground strap during each ignition event, the arc frequently travels to the “rim” or “shell” of the spark plug. This behavior is termed rim-fire and although observed by other researchers in industry, its effects on engine performance are not widely reported. This paper addresses some of the quantitative effects of rim-fire on engine performance. Combustion data were recorded for various repeat conditions on a Ford 1.8L Zetec engine. The first set of engine tests used four, new, conventional, automotive spark plugs. The second set of engine tests used four modified spark plugs that induced 100% rim-fire when the ground strap was permanently removed. The study focused on part- and full-load engine performance, EGR tolerance, and step-transient characteristics.
Technical Paper

the behavior of Radiation-Resistant ANP TURBINE LUBRICANTS

1959-01-01
590051
RADIATION can produce almost instantaneous failure of modern aircraft lubricants, tests at Southwest Research Institute show. Two types of failures demonstrated are rapid viscosity rise and loss of heat conductivity. Furthermore, it was found that lubricants can become excessively corrosive under high-level radiation. Generally speaking, the better lubricants appeared to improve in performance while marginal ones deteriorated to a greater extent under radiation. When the better lubricants were subjected to static irradiation prior to the deposition test, there was a minor increase in deposition number as the total dose was increased.
Technical Paper

A Critical Analysis of Traffic Accident Data

1975-02-01
750916
General agreement exists that the ultimate goals of traffic accident research are to reduce fatality, mitigate injury and decrease economic loss to society. Although massive quantities of data have been collected in local, national and international programs, attempts by analysts to use these data to explore ideas or support hypotheses have been met by a variety of problems. Specifically, the coded variables in the different files are not consistent and little information on accident etiology is collected. Examples of the inadequacies of present data in terms of the collected and coded variables are shown. The vehicular, environmental and human (consisting of human factors and injury factors) variables are disproportionately represented in most existing data files in terms of recognized statistical evidence of accident causation. A systems approach is needed to identify critical, currently neglected variables and develop units of measurement and data collection procedures.
Technical Paper

Three-Point Belt Induced Injuries: A Comparison Between Laboratory Surrogates and Real World Accident Victims

1975-02-01
751141
Injuries produced by standard three point restraint systems with retractors will be compared between cadavers in laboratory simulated collisions at 30 mph barrier equivalent speed and lap and shoulder belted front seat occupants in real world frontal collisions of '73-'75 full sized cars. Tests conducted at SwRI with belted, unembalmed, fresh cadavers have resulted in extremely severe thoracic and cervical injuries, including multiple rib fractures, fractures of the sternum, clavicle and cervical vertebrae. On the other hand, injury data from a national accident investigation study to evaluate the effectiveness of restraints in late model passenger cars indicates that such injuries in real world crashes of equivalent severity are not always observed. The reasons possible for these differences are discussed. Both programs at SwRI are funded by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Technical Paper

Unrestrained, Front Seat, Child Surrogate Trajectories Produced by Hard Braking

1982-02-01
821165
This paper describes a study to determine the influence of preimpact vehicle braking on the positions and postures of unrestrained, children in the front seat at the time of collision. Anesthetized baboons were used as child surrogates. The unrestrained animals were placed in various initial sitting, kneeling, and standing positions typically assumed by children while traveling in automobiles. Tests were conducted with various front seat positions and seat covering materials. Measurements were made of pertinent vehicle dynamics and surrogate kinematics during the hard braking event. For each initial condition evaluated, a photosequence is given showing typical positions and postures of the surrogate during the braking event.
Technical Paper

Ignition of Underbody and Engine Compartment Hydrogen Releases

2006-04-03
2006-01-0127
Various fire scenarios involving a hydrogen fuel system were simulated to evaluate their associated safety hazards. Scenarios included finite releases of hydrogen with delayed ignition as well as small hydrogen jet-fire releases. The scenarios tested resulted in minimal damage to the vehicle, minimal hazards to the vehicle's surroundings, and no observable damage or hazards within the passenger compartment.
Technical Paper

Vibrational and Sound Radiation Properties of a Double Layered Diesel Engine Gear Cover

1999-05-17
1999-01-1773
The introduction of a thin fluid layer between two layers of sheet metal offers a highly effective and economical alternative to the use of constrained viscoelastic damping layers in sheet metal structures. A diesel engine gear cover, which is constructed of two sheet metal sections spot welded together, takes advantage of fluid layer damping to produce superior vibration and sound radiation performance. In this paper, the bending of a double layered plate coupled through a thin fluid layer is modeled using a traveling wave approach which results in a impedance function that can be used to assess the vibration and sound radiation performance of practical double layered plate structures. Guided by this model, the influence of fluid layer thickness and inside-to-outside sheet thickness is studied.
Technical Paper

Finite Difference Heat Transfer Model of a Steel-clad Aluminum Brake Rotor

2005-10-09
2005-01-3943
This paper describes the heat transfer model of a composite aluminum brake rotor and compares the predicted temperatures to dynamometer measurements taken during a 15 fade stop trial. The model is based on meshed surface geometry which is simulated using RadTherm software. Methods for realistically modeling heat load distribution, surface rotation, convection cooling and radiation losses are also discussed. A comparison of the simulation results to the dynamometer data shows very close agreement throughout the fade stop trial. As such, the model is considered valid and will be used for further Steel Clad Aluminum (SCA) rotor development.
Technical Paper

Comparative Abuse Testing of 36 V and 12 V Battery Designs

2006-04-03
2006-01-1272
Comparative abuse tests were performed on commercially available 12 V and 36 V battery designs. Four methods were chosen from SAE J2464 standard, Electrical Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing, March 1999, and modified to apply them to typical-sized automotive batteries. The four tests included a Penetration Test, Crush Test, Radiant Heat Test, and Short Circuit Test. Both the 12 V and 36 V batteries showed minimal reactions to the tests, and there was no significant difference between results of the two designs with respect to the abuse tests performed. It should be stressed however, that this project was limited in scope and was not intended to be a thorough investigation in the batteries safety hazards.
Technical Paper

Using the Cone Calorimeter to Predict FMVSS 302 Performance of Interior and Exterior Automotive Materials

2006-04-03
2006-01-1270
Forty-eight materials from parts used inside and outside the passenger compartment of six motor vehicles were tested according to FMVSS 302. All samples passed the test although the FMVSS 302 test requirements do not apply to exterior materials. The same materials were also tested in the Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E 1354) at three heat fluxes. The FMVSS 302 performance diagram developed earlier on the basis of Cone Calorimeter data for 18 exterior materials from two vehicles appears to have more general validity for solid plastic parts, regardless whether they are taken from locations inside or outside of the passenger compartment. The previously-developed performance diagram is not applicable to plastic foams and fabrics. Additional criteria are proposed to predict whether a foam or fabric is likely to pass the FMVSS 302 test based on ignition time and peak heat release rate measured in the Cone Calorimeter at a heat flux of 35 kW/m2.
Technical Paper

Bayesian Reliability-Based Design Optimization Using Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0559
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in reliability-based design optimization (RBDO). One assumption in RBDO is that the complete information of input uncertainties are known. However, this assumption is not valid in practical engineering applications, due to the lack of sufficient data. In practical engineering design, information concerning uncertainty parameters is usually in the form of finite samples. Existing methods in uncertainty based design optimization cannot handle design problems involving epistemic uncertainty with a shortage of information. Recently, a novel method referred to as Bayesian Reliability-Based Design Optimization (BRBDO) was proposed to properly handle design problems when engaging both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties [1]. However, when a design problem involves a large number of epistemic variables, the computation task for BRBDO becomes extremely expensive.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Robust Design Optimization Using the EDR Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0550
This paper attempts to integrate a derivative-free probability analysis method to Reliability-Based Robust Design Optimization (RBRDO). The Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) method is used for the probability analysis method. It has been demonstrated that the EDR method is more accurate and efficient than the Second-Order Reliability Method (SORM) for reliability and quality assessment. Moreover, it can simultaneously evaluate both reliability and quality without any extra expense. Two practical engineering problems (vehicle side impact and layered bonding plates) are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the EDR method.
Technical Paper

Innovative Six Sigma Design Using the Eigenvector Dimension-Reduction (EDR) Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0799
This paper presents an innovative approach for quality engineering using the Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) Method. Currently industry relies heavily upon the use of the Taguchi method and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratios as quality indices. However, some disadvantages of the Taguchi method exist such as, its reliance upon samples occurring at specified levels, results to be valid at only the current design point, and its expensiveness to maintain a certain level of confidence. Recently, it has been shown that the EDR method can accurately provide an analysis of variance, similar to that of the Taguchi method, but is not hindered by the aforementioned drawbacks of the Taguchi method. This is evident because the EDR method is based upon fundamental statistics, where the statistical information for each design parameter is used to estimate the uncertainty propagation through engineering systems.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Fuel Tank Fire Exposure Burst Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-1886
A fire exposure test was conducted on a 72.4 liter composite (Type HGV-4) hydrogen fuel tank at an initial hydrogen pressure of 34.3 MPa (ca 5000 psi). No Pressure Relief Device was installed on the tank to ensure catastrophic failure for analysis. The cylinder ruptured at 35.7 MPa after a 370 kW fire exposure for 6 min 27 seconds. Blast wave pressures measured along a line perpendicular to the cylinder axis were 18% to 25% less the values calculated from ideal blast wave correlations using a blast energy of 13.4 MJ, which is based on the ideal gas internal energy at the 35.7 MPa burst pressure. The resulting hydrogen fireball maximum diameter of 7.7 m is about 19% less than the value predicted from existing correlations using the 1.64 kg hydrogen mass in the tank.
Technical Paper

Comparative Evaluation of Automotive Fuel Tanks in General Accordance with ECE R34.01, Annex 5 Section 5.0 “Resistance to Fire”

2005-04-11
2005-01-1561
The primary objective of this study was to compare the performance of “new” plastic fuel tanks vs. “aged” plastic fuel tanks when subjected to the standard fire exposure test described in ECE R34.01, Annex 5 Section 5.0 “Resistance to Fire.” The program also included a comparison of failure modes of plastic vs. metal fuel tanks when subjected to a simulated post-crash pool fire. The “new” tanks were purchased from the OEM suppliers (not weathered or pre-conditioned with fuel). The “aged” tanks were obtained from vehicles that were operated in a warm climate and considered to be weathered and fully conditioned with fuel. Three vehicle types, representing three fuel tank shapes and installations, were evaluated: 1.) “thin profile” tank, typical of front wheel drive cars with the tank mounted on the underbody near the rear seat area and in front of the rear axle; 2.) “square profile” tank, typical of SUV's with the tank mounted behind the rear axle; and 3.)
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Smoke Toxicity of Automotive Materials According to Standard Small-Scale Test Procedures

2005-04-11
2005-01-1558
This paper examines the role of inhalation toxicity of the products of combustion that are generated in post-collision motor vehicle fires by automotive materials used under the hood. Small-scale toxic gas measurements were performed at Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) on eighteen components of two of the vehicles that were tested previously at the Factory Mutual Test Center (FMTC). The small-scale toxic gas measurements were obtained under dynamic flow-through conditions in the Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E 1354) and under static conditions in two smoke chamber methods (ASTM E 662 and ASTM E 1995); all methods were supplemented with FTIR gas analysis. Average yields of toxic gases measured in the Cone Calorimeter are comparable to but consistently lower than values reported in the literature for the Fire Propagation Apparatus (ASTM E 2058).
Journal Article

Test Protocols for Motorcoach Fire Safety

2015-04-14
2015-01-1381
The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated to simulate a representative engine compartment and wheel well.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology in Studying Lubricant Chemistry to Enhance Bearing and Ring Wear Control in an Operating Engine

1994-10-01
941982
Radioactive tracer technology (RAT) is an important tool in measuring component wear in an operating engine on a real-time basis. This paper will discuss the use of RAT to study and evaluate boundary lubricant and surfactant chemistries aimed at providing benefits in wear control. In particular, RAT was employed to study ring and bearing wear as a function of engine operating condition (speed, load, and temperature) and lubricant characteristics. Prior to testing, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings were subjected to bulk thermal neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that were separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces. The irradiated parts were installed in the test engine, after which testing to a specific test matrix was accomplished.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Deer with RADAR and LIDAR for Active Safety Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0217
To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
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