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Technical Paper

Development of a Piston Temperature Telemetry System

1992-02-01
920232
The measurement of piston temperature in a reciprocating engine has historically been a very time-consuming and expensive process. Several conditions exist in an engine that measurement equipment must be protected against. Acceleration forces near 2000 G's occur at TDC in automotive engines at rated speed. Operating temperatures inside the crankcase can range to near 150°C. To allow complete mapping of piston temperature, several measuring locations are required in the piston and data must be obtained at various engine operating conditions. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a telemetry-based system that withstands the harsh environments mentioned above. The device is attached to the underside of a piston and temperature data is transmitted to a receiving antenna in the engine crankcase. The key element of this device is a tiny power generator which utilizes the reciprocating motion of the piston to generate electricity thus allowing the transmitter to be self-powered.
Technical Paper

Spectrometric Analysis of Used Oils

1969-02-01
690776
This paper discusses the techniques and diagnostic significance of atomic absorption, atomic emission, and infrared spectrometric analysis of crankcase lubricants, with the use of supplementary data where pertinent. The parameters affecting used oil analytical data are discussed in terms of examples from Army general purpose vehicle test engines. Wear metals in used gear oils are also discussed and examples are given. Analytical methods and their applications are fully described, and the equipment and procedures for infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques are outlined.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Combustion of Propane in a Railroad Diesel Engine

1963-01-01
630450
Fuel conservationists will welcome this practicable proposal for converting railroads from diesel fuel to propane gas propulsion. Propane is no newcomer to the fuel family, but the advantages of economy, simplicity of operation, minimal maintenance, and extended life of equipment, as presented in this paper, show up its unexploited and extensive potential use in all mobile units. This careful study includes experimental results and data especially applied to railroad engines, even to conversion plans for existing engines that allows an interchangeable fuel system to accommodate present supply and variable cost factors in the United States.
Technical Paper

Advanced Nondestructive Testing Methods for Bearing Inspection

1972-02-01
720172
The principles of the magnetic-perturbation method of flaw detection and the Barkhausen noise residual stress measurement method are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that they provide very powerful tools for assuring improved ball bearing performance. The methods are applied for the evaluation of ball bearing races. Typical experimental results are presented along with metallurgical sectioning correlation.
Technical Paper

The Winch-Dozer - A Tool for Area Mine Spoil Leveling

1977-02-01
770550
A new approach to reclaiming the spoil areas produced by area-type mining operations has been developed. This system uses a machine known as a winch-dozer, consisting of a pair of large back-to-back buckets which are drawn by cable across spoil piles, moving back and forth between a “tailblock” anchor and a “drawworks” winch unit developed as an attachment to a large crawler tractor. The system is expected to reduce the cost of reclamation leveling by 40-50%. The system permits more effective power utilization due to the blade system's light weight, induces caving of spoil banks, and permits moving spoil in both directions of blade travel.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Diesel Engines Using Exhaust Smoke and Temperature

1976-02-01
760833
An experimental sensor array that measures dynamic exhaust temperature and dynamic smoke for the purpose of diagnosing diesel engine fuel injection equipment was designed, built, and tested. The sensor array is portable and easily installed on truck tailpipes, and was tested using two 6V-53 Detroit Diesel engines. The dynamic temperature sensor is a very high response instrument capable of measuring changes in gas temperature in excess of 104°F/second. The dynamic smokemeter is an optical device designed to measure very low levels of light opacity in the smoke plume, with a response compatible with the engine firing frequency. Dynamic exhaust temperature data had more diagnostic significance than dynamic smoke in the detection of maximum power degrading fuel injection faults.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Hydraulic Efficiency Using High-Shear Viscosity Fluids

2010-10-25
2010-01-2178
Fossil fuel consumption is a significant factor in terms of both economic and environ-mental impact of on- and off-highway systems. Because fuel consumption can be directly tied to equipment efficiency, gains in efficiency can lead to reduction in operating costs as well as conservation of nonrenewable resources. Fluid performance has a direct effect on the efficiency of a hydraulic system. A procedure has been developed for measuring a fluid's effect on the degree to which mechanical power is efficiently converted to hydraulic power in pumps typical of off-highway applications.
Technical Paper

Port Design for Charge Motion Improvement within the Cylinder

2016-04-05
2016-01-0600
The engine intake process governs many aspects of the flow within the cylinder. The inlet valve is the minimum area, so gas velocities at the valve are the highest velocities seen. Geometric configuration of the inlet ports and valves, and the opening schedule create organized large scale motions in the cylinder known as swirl and tumble. Good charge motion within the cylinder will produce high turbulence levels at the end of the compression stroke. As the turbulence resulting from the conversion energy of the inlet jet decays fast, the strategy is to encapsulate some of the inlet jet in the organized motions. In this work the baseline port of a 2.0 L gasoline engine was modified by inserting a tumble plate. The work was done in support of an experimental study for which a new single-cylinder research engine was set up to allow combustion system parameters to be varied in steps over an extensive range. Tumble flow was one such parameter.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Off-Highway Vehicle Cab Noise and Vibration Using Inverse Matrix Techniques

1999-09-14
1999-01-2815
Noise Path Analysis techniques (NPA) have been developed and refined by the automotive industry for structure-borne noise and vibration evaluation of their products. Off-highway vehicles, particularly those with enclosed cabs, are excellent candidates for the application of these techniques. Like automobiles, many off-highway machines are typically driven by a rotating power source, have a well-defined acoustic receiver space, and use some form of isolation between source and receiver sub-systems. These structural characteristics make NPA a useful tool for identifying dominant sources and energy transfer paths. The objectives of this paper are to revisit the fundamental theory of matrix inversion as it applies to NPA techniques, and to address the common setup and measurement issues encountered when acquiring noise path data on off-highway machines. A general overview of the procedures involved in applying NPA to an off-highway machine will be presented.
Technical Paper

Summary and Characteristics of Rotating Machinery Digital Signal Processing Methods

1999-09-14
1999-01-2818
Several very different order tracking and analysis techniques for rotating equipment have been developed recently that are available in commercial noise and vibrations software packages. Each of these order tracking methods has distinct trade-offs for many common applications and very specific advantages for special applications in sound quality or noise and vibrations troubleshooting. The Kalman, Vold-Kalman, Computed Order Tracking, and the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as well as common FFT based order analysis methods will all be presented. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods will be presented as well as the highlights of their mathematical properties. This paper is intended to be an overview of currently available technology with all methods presented in a common format that allows easy comparison of their properties. Several analytical examples will be presented to thoroughly document each methods' behavior with different types of data.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Arctic Engine Oil (OEA-30)

1999-05-03
1999-01-1523
U.S. Army arctic engine oil, MIL-L-46167B, designated OEA, provides excellent low-temperature operation and is multi functional. It is suitable for crankcase lubrication of reciprocating internal combustion engines and for power-transmission fluid applications in ground equipment. However, this product required 22-percent derated conditions in the two-cycle diesel engine qualifications test. Overall, OEA oil was limited to a maximum ambient temperature use of 5°C for crankcase applications. The technical feasibility of developing an improved, multi functional arctic engine oil for U.S. military ground mobility equipment was investigated. The concept was proven feasible, and the new oil, designated as OEA-30, has exceptional two-cycle diesel engine performance at full engine output and can be operated beyond the 5°C maximum ambient temperature limit of the MIL-L-46167B product.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3283
A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Implementation of the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as a Real-Time Order Tracking Method

2007-05-15
2007-01-2213
The Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform was implemented as a real-time order tracking method using developed software and commercially available hardware. The time variant discrete Fourier transform (TVDFT) with the application of the orthogonality compensation matrix allows multiple tachometers to be tracked with close and/or crossing orders to be separated in real-time. Signal generators were used to create controlled experimental data sets to simulate tachometers and response channels. Computation timing was evaluated for the data collection procedure and each of the data processing steps to determine how each part of the process affects overall performance. Many difficulties are associated with a real-time data collection and analysis tool and it becomes apparent that an understanding of each component in the system is required to determine where time consuming computation is located.
Technical Paper

Threshold Level as an Index of Squeak and Rattle Performance

1999-05-17
1999-01-1730
A practical approach for evaluating and validating global system designs for Squeak and Rattle performance is proposed. Using simple slip and rattle models, actual sound and vibration data, and the fundamentals of audiological perception, analysis tools adapted from Chaos Theory are used to establish threshold levels of performance and identify system characteristics which are significant contributors to Squeak and Rattle. Focus on system design is maintained by using a simple rattle noise indicator and relating rattle events to levels of dynamic motion (acceleration, velocity, etc.). The threshold level is defined as the level of acceleration at which the system moves from a non-rattling state to a rattling state. The approach is demonstrated with a simple analytical model applied to an experimental structure under dynamic load.
Technical Paper

Extraction/Filtration of Transients Embedded in Stationary Signals Using Wavelets; Focus on Extraction of Frequency Response Functions

1999-05-17
1999-01-1824
Recent trends in signal processing have led to the discovery and implementation of wavelets as tools of many different applications. This paper focuses on their use as a tool for transient extraction. From the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), specific coefficients are picked using a coherence-based criterion. These coefficients are then taken back to the time domain as the extracted transient. If the extracted transient is a response from a measured input, then a frequency response function can be formulated.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 1: Development of TxDOT-Specific Test Cycles with Emphasis on a “Route” Technique for Comparing Fuel/Water Emulsions and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0090
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an emulsified diesel fuel in July 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel, which they use in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study also incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Associated General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel fuel in their equipment. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsified fuel relative to the conventional diesel fuels. Cycles that are known to be representative of the typical operations for TxDOT and AGC equipment were required for use in this study. Four test cycles were developed from data logged on equipment during normal service: 1) the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle, 2) the AGC Wheeled Loader Cycle, 3) the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle, and 4) the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Journal Article

Reduction of Steady-State CFD HVAC Simulations into a Fully Transient Lumped Parameter Network

2014-05-10
2014-01-9121
Since transient vehicle HVAC computational fluids (CFD) simulations take too long to solve in a production environment, the goal of this project is to automatically create a lumped-parameter flow network from a steady-state CFD that solves nearly instantaneously. The data mining algorithm k-means is implemented to automatically discover flow features and form the network (a reduced order model). The lumped-parameter network is implemented in the commercial thermal solver MuSES to then run as a fully transient simulation. Using this network a “localized heat transfer coefficient” is shown to be an improvement over existing techniques. Also, it was found that the use of the clustering created a new flow visualization technique. Finally, fixing clusters near equipment newly demonstrates a capability to track localized temperatures near specific objects (such as equipment in vehicles).
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Lubricity

1995-02-01
950248
The United States and Europe are mandating increasingly severe diesel fuel specifications, particularly with respect to sulfur content, and in some areas, aromatics content. This trend is directed towards reducing vehicle exhaust emissions and is generally beneficial to fuel quality, ignition ratings, and stability. However, laboratory studies, as well as recent field experience in Sweden and the United States, indicate a possible reduction in the ability of fuels to lubricate sliding components within the fuel injection system. These factors, combined with the trend toward increasing injection pressure in modern engine design, are likely to result in reduced durability and failure of the equipment to meet long-term emissions compliance. The U.S. Army Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility (BFLRF) located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) developed an accelerated wear test that predicts the effects of fuel lubricity on injection system durability.
Technical Paper

Design & Validation of Low-Cost Sound Intensity Probe

2019-06-05
2019-01-1462
Sound intensity measurement techniques, that used a two-microphone setup, were first developed in the late 1970s. Back then, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing because the equipment available was inherently inaccurate. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a price, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones.
Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

2019-03-19
2019-01-1352
The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
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