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Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Contamination Sensitivity of Automotive Components

System contamination caused by contaminates or small particles built-in, self-generated, or inhaled from environment presents severe problems. The problems include but are not limited to the malfunctioning of valves, pumps, seals and injectors or lock-up of these components; increased wear of bearings, piston rings, and other friction components; and degradated machine performance. In general, system contamination changes a deterministic system into a stochastic system and shortens machinery service life. In this paper, these contamination problems are discussed in categories and associated analysis, testing and computer modeling methodologies are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Cam/Roller Component Fatigue Reliability Analysis

Life prediction and reliability analysis of a cam roller system were investigated. From the tribological analysis, the cam roller system was found to operate under low film parameter conditions and components were subjected to the risk of contact fatigue. Surface analysis performed on the failed rollers indicated that the surface distress was the primary cause for failure. Then, numerical analyses were performed to evaluate the cam roller life and its related reliability. The adopted approach combined a contact fatigue crack growth calculations with a probabilistic model for controlling the design uncertainty. The computation-efficient Fast Probabilistic Integration (FPI™) code was used to solve the problem. With appropriate descriptions for uncertainty distributions, the surface fatigue life of the specified cam roller system can be predicted along with a confident reliability level.
Technical Paper

High-Pressure Injection Fuel System Wear Study

The critical particle size for a high-pressure injection system was determined. Various double-cut test dusts ranging from 0 to 5 μm to 10 to 20 μm were evaluated to determine which test dust caused the high-pressure system to fail. With the exception of the 0- to 5-μm test dust, all test dust ranges caused failure in the high-pressure injection system. Analysis of these evaluations revealed that the critical particle size, in initiating significant abrasive wear, is 6 to 7 μm. Wear curve formulas were generated for each evaluation. A formula was derived that allows the user to determine if the fuel filter effluent will cause harmful damage to the fuel system based on the number of 5-, 10-, and 15-μm particles per milliliter present. A methodology was developed to evaluate fuel filter performance as related to engine operating conditions. The abrasive methodology can evaluate online filter efficiency and associated wear in a high-pressure injection system.
Technical Paper

Filtration Requirements and Evaluation Procedure for a Rotary Injection Fuel Pump

A cooperative research and development program was organized to determine the critical particle size of abrasive debris that will cause significant wear in rotary injection fuel pumps. Various double-cut test dusts ranging from 0-5 to 10-20 μm were evaluated to determine which caused the pumps to fail. With the exception of the 0-5-μm test dust, all other test dust ranges evaluated caused failure in the rotary injection pumps. After preliminary testing, it was agreed that the 4-8-μm test dust would be used for further testing. Analysis revealed that the critical particle size causing significant wear is 6-7 μm. This is a smaller abrasive particle size than reported in previously published literature. A rotary injection pump evaluation methodology was developed. During actual operation, the fuel injection process creates a shock wave that propagates back up the fuel line to the fuel filter.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

Compatibility of Elastomers and Metals in Biodiesel Fuel Blends

Alternative fuels are being evaluated in automotive applications in both commercial and government fleets in an effort to reduce emissions and United States dependence on diesel fuel. Vehicles and equipment have been operated using 100 percent biodiesel and various blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel in a variety of applications, including farming equipment and transit buses. This government study investigates the compatibility of four base fuels and six blends with elastomer and metallic components commonly found in fuel systems. The physical properties of the elastomers were measured according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 471, “Standard Test Method for Rubber Property-Effect of Liquids,” and ASTM D 412, “Standard Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension.” These evaluations were performed at 51.7°C for 0, 22, 70, and 694 hours. Tensile strength, hardness, swell, and elongation were determined for all specimens.
Technical Paper

Design Improvements of an Automatic Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

An Automatic Tire Inflation System (ATIS), specifically designed for use on commercial long haul trailers underwent complete testing and evaluation in 1993/1994.1 Testing and evaluation included a field test of a prototype system and a controlled laboratory evaluation of the Rotary Union which is the only component subject to wear. The testing of the prototype system indicated that design improvements were necessary before the system could be installed in fleet operations. The design improvements were completed and field installation of production ATIS began. The design improvements were intended to improve overall system durability, decrease installation time, to have less effect on the axle structure than the original design, implement the use of SAE or DOT Approved pressure components and increase overall dependability of the system. ATIS systems have now been developed and tested for most domestic trailer axle configurations.
Technical Paper

Effect of Low-Lubricity Fuels on Diesel Injection Pumps - Part II:Laborator Evaluation

This paper is the second of two that describe the effects of low-lubricity fuels on diesel injection pump performance. The first paper describes the primary failure mechanisms and wear processes in a number of failed pumps removed from both military and civilian vehicles that had been operated on Jet A-1 and diesel fuels. However, the multitude of unregulated parameters in practical operation renders quantitative comparison between different fuels and pump combinations impractical. This paper describes the degradation in pump performance and the wear processes associated with fuels of varying lubricity in the well-defined environment of a pump test stand. The test methodology concentrates on those areas previously demonstrated to be most susceptible to wear. The results indicate that pump durability is reduced by highly refined low-viscosity fuels, but may be successfully counteracted by either improved metallurgy or lubricity additives.
Technical Paper

The Development of Techniques to Measure Vehicle Spray on Wet Roads

Several techniques have been developed to measure the relative amount of splash and spray produced by vehicles when driven on wet roads at highway speeds under controlled conditions. This paper discusses considerations in the development of measurement techniques such as those utilizing photographs, a photometer, densitometer, spraymeter, and spray collector. The development of each technique is described. Some test data utilizing the photometer and densitometer techniques are presented in a comparison of two different trucks run on two different road surfaces with new and worn tires, fully loaded and unloaded, and under light and heavy road moisture conditions.
Technical Paper

the behavior of Radiation-Resistant ANP TURBINE LUBRICANTS

RADIATION can produce almost instantaneous failure of modern aircraft lubricants, tests at Southwest Research Institute show. Two types of failures demonstrated are rapid viscosity rise and loss of heat conductivity. Furthermore, it was found that lubricants can become excessively corrosive under high-level radiation. Generally speaking, the better lubricants appeared to improve in performance while marginal ones deteriorated to a greater extent under radiation. When the better lubricants were subjected to static irradiation prior to the deposition test, there was a minor increase in deposition number as the total dose was increased.
Technical Paper

Spectrometric Analysis of Used Oils

This paper discusses the techniques and diagnostic significance of atomic absorption, atomic emission, and infrared spectrometric analysis of crankcase lubricants, with the use of supplementary data where pertinent. The parameters affecting used oil analytical data are discussed in terms of examples from Army general purpose vehicle test engines. Wear metals in used gear oils are also discussed and examples are given. Analytical methods and their applications are fully described, and the equipment and procedures for infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques are outlined.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oil and Coolant Temperatures on Diesel Engine Wear

A study has been made of piston ring wear and total engine wear using literature data and new experimental results. The main purpose of the study was to establish the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear. Wear trends that were found in the early 1960's may not be valid any longer because of the development of higher BMEP turbocharged diesel engines, better metallurgical wear surfaces and improved lube oil properties. New data are presented for the purpose of describing present wear trends. A direct-injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used for the wear tests. The radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the top piston ring chrome face wear. Atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentration of wear metals in the oil to determine total engine wear based on iron and lead. The data were analyzed and compared to the results found in the literature from previous investigators.
Technical Paper

Modified Sequence V-D Test with Two Engines Using Alcohol Fuels

Modifying the standard Sequence V-D test for alcohol fuels requires material changes in the fuel handling system addition of a fine mesh fuel filter and the provision for easy fuel drainage. Besides rejetting the carburetors the initial ring gaps of the 2.3L engine are reduced to maintain the blow by level of the standard test. Large oil consumption necessitates a modified oil leveling procedure. Precise measurements of the rings bores and valve-train components are essential to the evaluation of oil performance. Wear of a 2.3L engine using alcohols is larger than using gasoline. Special oils can be formulated to mitigate the wear problem. To test the 1.6L engine with the Sequence V-D procedure requires extensive modification to the production carburetor and some plumbing changes of the standard test stand. Load and initial oil charge are scaled to reflect the smaller engine requirements. Wear of the 1.6L engine is less severe than the 2.3L.
Technical Paper

Performance of Carbon∕Diesel Fuel Slurries in a Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

The effects of carbon black∕diesel fuel slurries on fuel injection systems and performance of an EMD 567B two-cylinder locomotive research engine when operated on slurry fuel are presented in this paper. Without extensive modification to the diesel engine fuel transfer system, carbon black slurries cannot be run. Laboratory bench tests revealed clogged fuel filters, worn transfer pump components and frozen injector needle assemblies. Engine performance while running slurries resulted in reduced thermal efficiency and increased BSFC at rated power output. Upon engine disassembly, inspection revealed severe ring and liner wear. Severe wear resulted during only 40 hours of engine operation.
Technical Paper

Medium-Speed Diesel Engine Residual Blended Fuels Screening Tests

A series of 500-hour duration tests were conducted using two medium-speed diesel engines to screen residual blended fuels for future locomotive field testing. The test fuels were railroad diesel fuel and two No. 6 fuel oil/diesel fuel blends. The performance, wear, fuel handling, and deposit characteristics of each fuel were evaluated. Combustion deposits, fuel handling, and wear were found to be the primary factors that limited No. 6 fuel oil content of blends. A 40 SSU viscosity blend was found to be acceptable for field trials, but a 55 SSU blend was not due to fuel filtration and combustion deposits problems.
Technical Paper

Observations from Cylinder Liner Wear Studies in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines and the Evolution towards Lower Viscosity Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants

Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Valvetrain Wear Test - The Sequence IVB Test

The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Lubricity: Statistical Analysis of Literature Data

A number of laboratory-scale test methods are available to predict the effects of fuel lubricity on injection system wear. Anecdotal evidence exists to indicate that these methods produce poor correlation with pump wear, particularly for fuels that contain lubricity additives. The issue is further complicated by variations in the lubricity requirements of full-scale equipment and the test methodologies used to evaluate the pumps. However, the cost of performing full-scale equipment testing severely limits the quantity of data available for validation of the laboratory procedures at any single location. In the present study, the technical literature was reviewed and all previously published data was combined to form a single database of 175 pump stand results. This volume of data allows far more accurate statistical analysis than is possible with tests performed at a single location. The results indicate differences in the effectiveness of the standardized laboratory-scale methods.