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Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck In-Use Emission Test Program for Model Years 1950 through 1975

Criteria pollutants were measured from ten Class 7 and 8 (i.e., gross vehicle weights > 33,000 lb) heavy-duty diesel trucks with engine model years between 1953 and 1975. The data was used by EPA to estimate that period's particulate matter emission rates for these type engines and will be used to develop dose response relationships with existing epidemiological data. Particulate samples were analyzed for sulfate and volatile organic fraction. Carbon soot was estimated. The trucks had particulate emissions of 2 to 10 g/mi as compared to 1 to 6 g/mi for trucks with model year engines from 1975 through the mid-1980s, and less than 1 g/mi for post-1988 trucks.
Technical Paper

Vektron® 6913 Gasoline Additive NOX Evaluation Fleet Test Program

A 28-vehicle fleet test was executed to verify and quantify the NOX emissions reductions achieved through the use of Infineum's Vektron 6913 gasoline additive. The fleet composition and experimental design were finalized in collaborative discussions with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation & Air Quality (OTAQ) and consultation / advice from several major US automotive manufacturers. The test was conducted over a period of five months at Southwest Research Institute. Statistical analysis of the emissions data indicated a 10% average fleet reduction in NOX emissions without any negative impact on other criteria pollutants (CO, HC) or fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Emissions Reduction Performance of a Bimetallic Platinum/Cerium Fuel Borne Catalyst with Several Diesel Particulate Filters on Different Sulfur Fuels

Results of engine bench tests on a 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine have confirmed the emissions reduction performance of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered platinum/cerium bimetallic fuel borne catalyst (FBC) used with several different catalyzed and uncatalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPF's). Performance was evaluated on both a 450ppm sulfur fuel (No.2 D) and a CARB 50ppm low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel. Particulate emissions of less than 0.02g/bhp-hr were achieved on several combinations of FBC and uncatalyzed filters on 450ppm sulfur fuel while levels of 0.01g/bhp-hr were achieved for both catalyzed and uncatalyzed filters using the FBC with the low sulfur CARB fuel. Eight-mode steady state testing of one filter and FBC combination with engine timing changes produced a 20% nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction with particulates (PM) maintained at 0.01g/bhp-hr and no increase in measured fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Reactivity and Exhaust Emissions from an EHC-Equipped LPG Conversion Vehicle Operating on Butane/Propane Fuel Blends

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) exhaust emissions, ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for several butane/propane alternative fuel blends run on a light-duty EHC-equipped gasoline vehicle converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Duplicate emission tests were conducted on the light-duty vehicle at each test condition using appropriate EPA FTP test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was utilized to determine reactivity-adjusted non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions for one test on each fuel.
Technical Paper

U.S. Army Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Emissions Using JP-8 Fuels with Varying Sulfur Content

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 weight percent (wt%) was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are equivalent to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Operating on Gasoline, Diesel, and Alternative Fuels

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for various heavy-duty engines operating on “industry average” (RF-A) gasoline, California Phase 2 gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel fuel. Each engine/fuel combination was tested in triplicate using the EPA heavy-duty transient cold- and hot-start test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was conducted for all tests to allow for the determination of ozone-forming potentials, using California Air Resources Board maximum incremental reactivity factors as well as determination of the Clean Air Act “toxic” emissions.
Technical Paper

Achieving the 2004 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Using Electronic EGR and a Cerium Based Fuel Borne Catalyst

The post-1998 diesel engine emissions challenge was put forth in July 1995 by the Statement of Principles (SOP) signed by the manufacturers of heavy duty engines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Through this SOP, the signatories agreed to reduce the on-highway diesel engine NOx emissions by 50% from the legislated 1998 4.0 g/ to 2.0 g/ by the year 2004 with no increase over the 1998 particulate matter legislated level set at 0.1 g/ There are provisions in the SOP for the optional grouping of the gaseous hydrocarbons and NOx, limiting them at a combined value of 2.5 g/ with a 0.5 g/ hydrocarbon limit. In North America, particulate matter emissions standards were first imposed on heavy duty diesel engines in 1988. Since then, the NOx and particulate matter were balanced by taking advantage of the trade-off between the two pollutants inherent in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A Next-Generation Emission Test Procedure for Small Utility Engines - Part 1, Background and Approach

Measurement of emissions from small utility engines has usually been accomplished using steady-state raw emissions procedures such as SAE Recommended Practice J1088. While raw exhaust measurements have the advantage of producing modal exhaust gas concentration data for design feedback; they are laborious, may influence both engine performance and the emissions themselves, and have no provision for concurrent particulate measurements. It is time to consider a full-dilution procedure similar in principle to automotive and heavy-duty on-highway emission measurement practice, leading to improvements in many of the areas noted above, and generally to much higher confidence in data obtained. When certification and audit of small engine emissions become a reality, a brief dilute exhaust procedure generating only the necessary data will be a tremendous advantage to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Sulfur Concentration on Regulated and Unregulated Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

The effects of fuel sulfur concentration on heavy-duty diesel emissions have been studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, mode 9 (1900 RPM, 75% Load) and mode 11(1900 RPM, 25% Load). Data were obtained using one fuel at two sulfur levels (Low Sulfur, LS = 0.01 wt% S and Doped Low Sulfur DS = 0.29 wt% S). All tests were conducted using a Cummins LTA10-300 heavy-duty diesel engine. No significant changes were found for the nitrogen oxides (NOx), soluble organic fractions (SOF) and XAD-2 (a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene) organic component (XOC) due to the fuel sulfur level increase at either engine mode. The hydrocarbon (HC) levels were not significantly affected by sulfur at mode 9; however, at mode 11 the HC levels were reduced by 16%. The total particulate matter (TPM) levels increased by 17% at mode 11 and by 24% at mode 9 (both significantly different).
Technical Paper


A vehicle test program was conducted to investigate the potential of combining several performance related evaluations into the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (proposed) 16,093-km intake valve deposit protocol. The 16,093-km (10,000-mile) tests, conducted with BMW 318i vehicles, were utilized to assess the gasoline- related effects on port fuel injector (PFI) flow, intake valve deposits (IVDs), octane requirement increase (ORI), combustion chamber deposits (CCDs), and oil viscosity increase (OVI). The test matrix was based upon four 1985 BMW 318i vehicles and four fuels. The four-fuel set consisted of three commercial gasolines and one pure chemical, iso- octane. Each of the four cars was tested on each fuel. During each 16,093-km test phase, the octane requirement and physical condition of the engine oil were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Soak Time Effects on Car Emissions and Fuel Economy

Five light-duty vehicles were used to investigate HC, CO, and NOx emissions and fuel economy sensitivity to changes in the length of soak period preceding the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Emission tests were conducted following soak periods 10 minutes to 36 hours in length. Each of the first 8 minutes of the driving cycle was studied separately to observe vehicle warm-up. Several engine and fuel system temperatures were monitored during soak and run periods and example trends are illustrated. The extent to which emission rates and fuel consumption are affected by soak period length is discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of an I/M Short Emissions Test for Buses

Emissions from existing diesel-powered urban buses are increasingly scrutinized as local, state, and federal governments require enforcement of more stringent emission regulations and expectations. Currently, visual observation of high smoke levels from diesel-powered equipment is a popular indicator of potential emission problems requiring tune-up or engine maintenance. It is important that bus inspection and maintenance (I/M) operations have a quality control “test” to check engine emissions or diagnose the engine state-of-tune before or after maintenance. Ideally, the “emission test” would be correlated to EPA transient emissions standards, be of short duration, and be compatible with garage procedures and equipment. In support of developing a useful “short-test,” equipment was designed to collect samples of raw exhaust over a short time period for gaseous and particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Catalytic Converters for Diesels

Improvements in diesel engine design to reduce particulate emissions levels, and a recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ruling limiting the maximum sulfur content in diesel fuel, enhanced the viability of catalytic aftertreatment for this market. The Department of Emissions Research, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), under contract from the Engine Manufacturers Association, (EMA), conducted a search to identify flow-through catalyst technologies available to reduce particulate emissions without trapping. The search revealed a variety of catalyst formulations, washcoats, and substrate designs which were screened on a light-duty diesel. Based on the performance of eighteen converters evaluated, several designs were selected to continue experimentation on a modern technology heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Public Opinion of Diesel Odor

This paper describes the results of a public opinion survey on testing of diesel exhaust odors conducted during 1969 and 1970. Major goals of the research were to relate public opinion of the odors and the objectionability associated with them to odor intensity, and to obtain a dose-response curve as the primary result. The dose-response curve was needed to assess odor-control technology by providing a criterion for deciding whether or not the effect of a given control item would be noticed by the general public, reduce complaints, or be worth the cost and effort required for its implementation. The engine used as the live odor source for the subject research was a two-stroke cycle type similar to those used in many buses. This engine type was chosen because its exposure to the public in urban bus applications is very widespread, and because a large portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's odor research had been performed with similar engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel and Additive Effects on Diesel Particulate-Development and Demonstration of Methodology

To develop a methodology for characterizing particulate emissions from diesel engines, one 2-stroke cycle engine and one 4-stroke cycle engine were operated in both individual steady-state modes and according to a variation of the 13-mode diesel emissions measurement procedure. Both engines were operated on three fuels, each used with one of two available diesel fuel additives as well as by itself. The primary particulate sampling technique employed was a dilution tunnel, and secondary evaluation techniques included a diluter-sampler developed under contract to EPA by another organization, a light extinction smokemeter, and a filter-type sampling smokemeter. Gaseous emissions were also measured, providing a running check on engine condition. Particulate mass rates were calculated from gravimetric data; and analysis of particulate included determination of sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phenols, nitrosamines, trace metals, and organic solubles.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks Tested on a Road Course and by Dynamometer

This is a summary compilation and analysis of exhaust-emission results and operating parameters from forty-five heavy-duty gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles tested over a 7.24-mile road course known as the San Antonio Road Route (SARR); and, for correlative purposes, on a chassis dynamometer.(2) Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed using the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) technique similar to that used in emission testing of light-duty vehicles. On the road course, all equipment and instrumentation were located on the vehicle while electrical power was supplied by a trailer-mounted generator. In addition to exhaust emissions, operating parameters such as vehicle speed, engine speed, manifold vacuum, and transmission gear were simultaneously measured and recorded on magnetic tape. The forty-five vehicles tested represent various model years, GVW ratings, and engine types and sizes.
Technical Paper

The Effects of a Porous Ceramic Particulate Trap on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions

Physical, chemical, and biological characterization data for the particulate emissions from a Caterpillar 3208 diesel engine with and without Corning porous ceramic particulate traps are presented. Measurements made at EPA modes 3,4,5,9,lO and 11 include total hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and total particulate matter emissions including the solid fraction (SOL), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and sulfate fraction (SO4), Chemical character was defined by fractionation of the SOF while biological character was defined by analysis of Ames Salmonella/ microsome bioassay data. The trap produced a wide range of total particulate reduction efficiencies (0-97%) depending on the character of the particulate. The chemical character of the SOF was significantly changed through the trap as was the biological character. The mutagenic specific activity of the SOF was generally increased through the trap but this was offset by a decrease in SOF mass emissions.
Technical Paper

Automotive Sulfates - A CVS Compatible Sampling System

This paper describes the development of a CVS compatible sampling system for automotive sulfate emissions. The design resulted from a consensus of ideas from EPA and industry. The system can be used with either a positive displacement pump or critical flow venturi CVS. A mist generator was developed to quantitatively inject sulfuric acid into the tunnel. While sulfate losses were acceptable using the mist generator, with actual automotive exhaust sulfate losses were much higher. The reasons for these losses were investigated. Sulfate losses in the tubing between the car and sulfate tunnel were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of an In-Service Snowmobile Emission Test Procedure For the SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

As concerns over air pollution continue to increase, all vehicles are subject to greater scrutiny for their emissions levels. Snowmobiles and other off-road recreational vehicles are now required to meet emissions regulations enacted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Currently these vehicles are certified using a stationary test procedure with the engine operating attached to a dynamometer and following a five-mode test cycle. The five modes range from idle to wide open throttle and are chosen to represent the typical operation regime of a vehicle. In addition, the EPA five-mode stationary emissions test has been traditionally used for scoring competition snowmobiles at the SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC). For the 2009 CSC, in-service emission testing was added to the competition to score the teams on actual, in-use emissions during operation of their competition snowmobile operated on a controlled test course.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Diesel NOX/PM Reduction

The US EPA emission standards for 2010 on-highway and 2014 non-road diesel engines are extremely stringent, both in terms of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Diesel engines typically operate lean and use at least 40-50 percent more air than what is needed for stoichiometric combustion of the fuel. As a result, significant excess oxygen (O₂) is present in diesel exhaust gas which prevents the application of the mature three-way catalyst (TWC) technology for NOX control used in gasoline engines. The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not the catalyzed DPF had a TWC-type of effect on NOX emissions and if so, why and to what extent when used on a diesel engine operating at reduced A/F ratio conditions.