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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Flow Noise Reduction upon Quick Opening the Throttle

2001-04-30
2001-01-1429
With the advance in modularization of engine parts in recent years, there is increased use of plastic-made products in air intake systems. Plastic-made intake manifolds (Fig. 1) provide many advantages including reduced weight, reduced cost, and lower intake air temperatures. However, these manifolds have one disadvantage when compared with conventional aluminum-made intake manifolds, in that they transmit more noise because of their lower material density. For example, plastic intake manifolds of early development often generate flow noise when the throttle is opened quickly. With conventional aluminum intake manifolds, this flow noise had generated, but was not heard. This flow noise is presumed to be generated because of high-speed airflow generated when the throttle is opened quickly, but the mechanism of this noise generation has not been clarified.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Analysis of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts - On the Two Effects of Rich-Spike Duration

2001-03-05
2001-01-1297
Two effects of rich-spike duration on NOx-storing have been analyzed. The first one, that NOx-storing speed decreases as rich-spike duration increases, is explained as the influence of NOx diffusion in wash-coat layer, which is quantified by a simple mathematical expression for NOx-storing rate. The second one, a peculiar behavior of NOx-storing in appearance of the outlet NOx concentration, is clarified: Heat produced directly or indirectly (via oxygen storage in ceria) by rich-spike warms up the downstream part, which releases excess NOx at the raised temperature. Contributions of the oxygen storage and the carbonate of NOx-storage material are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Rain Sensor for Automatic Wiper System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0612
One of the key elements of vehicle safety requires a constantly uninterrupted visible view especially during unexpected weather conditions. Our present development of a light reflection type rain sensor is a key device of our automatic windshield wiper system. The design concept of the sensor is based on the quantification on both detected rainfalls and wiping modes in order to match the wiping mode in an operator's mind by optimizing the optical sensing system and establishing an algorithm for controlling wiping. In addition, auto-initialization of the system has been achieved first in the world.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Black-face Cluster with Transparent Electroluminescent (EL) Display

2001-03-05
2001-01-0839
We have developed a New Black-face Cluster with Transparent EL Display, positioned on the speedometer, to display driver support information within the cluster; mass production of this DUAL VISION CLUSTER commenced in September 1999. The following were two requirements for implementing this cluster. 1) Selection of display device 2) Positioning of cluster in front of speedometer, using Transparent EL Display In this session, we will explain how we resolved the issues involved in development of this new Black-face Cluster. We will also describe the structure of the cluster.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota's New “Super CVT”

2001-03-05
2001-01-0872
Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) named “Super CVT”. The Super CVT has a wide ratio coverage and adopts a newly developed integrated control system with a direct injection gasoline engine (D-4) equipped with electronically controlled throttle. The combined package has achieved good fuel economy and a high overall level of performance. This paper shows the major features and performance of the Super CVT.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Fan-Shaped Spray

2001-03-05
2001-01-0738
Numerical 3-D simulations are performed for the improvement of the new direct injection gasoline engine. A solution based local grid refinement method has been developed in order to reduce the CPU time. This method has been incorporated into the CFD program (STAR-CD) with in-house spray and combustion models. Calculation results were compared with the experimental data taken by the LIF technique, and good agreement was obtained for the mixture formation and combustion processes. Some calculations were carried out for the fuel-air mixture formation process during late injection stratified combustion and the following results were obtained. The unburnt fuel has a tendency to remain in the side of the piston cavity at the latter part of the combustion period. To reduce the amount of unburnt fuel, it was shown that the combination of a thin thickness fan spray and compact cavity forms a spherical mixture, suitable for combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of Stratified Charge Combustion Characteristics in New Concept Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0734
A new stratified charge system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle and a shell-shaped piston cavity. This system, basically classified into the wall-guided mixture preparation concept that leads air/fuel mixture to the spark plug periphery by means of spray penetration and piston cavity configuration without an extra intake air flow controlling system, obtained wide engine operating area with stratified combustion and high output performance. This report presents the characteristics of stratified mixture formation and combustion, especially the important factor for achieving stable stratified combustion in the high-speed region, which have been clarified through analytical studies.
Technical Paper

Piston Temperature Measuring Technology Using Electromagnetic Induction

2001-05-07
2001-01-2027
Authors have developed an apparatus which measures the piston temperature using electromagnetic induction. The characteristics of this apparatus are as follows; 1 Applicable to 6 points per cylinder and all cylinders 2 Capable of measuring while the engine is running from start to 6000r/min full-load operation 3 Wide measuring range; from -30 to 400 °C 4 High accuracy; ±2.5 °C 5 Quick and easy setup 6 High durability This technology contributes to realizing the best balance of piston reliability and matching of combustion conditions. In this report, authors analyzed its influences upon piston temperature when the ignition timing,the oil/water temperature or the oil flow from piston jet were changed, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid Vehicle and Its Future Expectation

2000-11-01
2000-01-C042
Following its introduction into the Japanese market, the Prius, Toyota Motor Corporation's hybrid vehicle, was released onto the American and European markets in Mid-2000. This lecture will take the form of an explanation of the new technology used to meet the demands of the western market, including improved driving performance, lower emissions, down-sizing of the system and lower costs. The lecture will also look briefly at the new Toyota hybrid system, the THS-C, which is currently being developed. The talk will include a look at the future of the hybrid vehicle.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

Development of the Automotive Exhaust Hydrocarbon Adsorbent

2001-03-05
2001-01-0660
The hydrocarbon adsorption volume character of zeolite was studied. Specifically, the relationship between aluminum content and zeolite hydrocarbon adsorption was investigated, as a potential hydrocarbon adsorbent for exhaust gas. The study also analyzed the relationship between hole diameter and zeolite hydrocarbon adsorption. It was found that hydrocarbon adsorption increased with decreasing aluminum content. Zeolite with a pore size approximately 0.1nm greater than the diameter of hydrocarbon molecules showed the best performance. Zeolites with two different pore sizes were mixed, and succeeded in adsorbing hydrocarbons of carbon number 3 and above. Silver (Ag) ion exchanged zeolite was also used to increase the adsorption of exhaust gas hydrocarbons, including those of carbon number 2.
Technical Paper

Development of the Chemical Recycling Technology of Glass Fiber Reinforced PA6 Parts

2001-03-05
2001-01-0694
Recently, the plastic material is positively introducing for automotive parts due to the Needs of vehicle weight reduction and cost saving. On the other hand, the countermeasure for scrapped car is a big subject to need to consider as a car maker. Therefore, the development of recycling technology for plastic parts has been necessary. In this study, we tried to develop recycling technology for glass fiber reinforced Polyamide6(PA6) which is applied to various automotive parts like an air intake manifold. As a recycling technique, we focused on the chemical recycling which can reclaim raw material of PA6(ε- caprolactams) from the post-consumer automotive parts. The chemical recycling we selected can be put on a higher priority because it has possibility to utilize the limited resource repeatedly. As a result, we could retain high purity of ε- caprolactams using our following two techniques which make possible to recycle Polyamide 6 materials. One is to separate PA6 from glass fiber.
Technical Paper

Development of Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0729
In succession to the world-first introduction of a mass production gasoline hybrid passenger car into the Japanese market in 1997, Toyota also has introduced an enhanced version of the above to the US and European markets in 2000. Upon introduction of Toyota Hybrid System (THS) into the US market, a drastic reduction of gasoline vapor evaporation from the fuel tank was necessary, in order to meet the most stringent exhaust emission (SULEV) and evaporative emission standards in the world. In order to meet this requirement, a fuel tank system named “Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System” was developed. This is the first commercial application in the world to use a variable tank volume to drastically reduce gasoline vapor generation.
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