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Technical Paper

Development of Torque Controlled Active Steering with Improving the Vehicle Stability for Brushless EPS

This article discusses a vehicle stability improvement control method that utilizes an electric power steering system (EPS) with blushless motor. The purpose is to improve the vehicle stability by increasing the steering return torque in a region where the alignment torque is saturated due to the driver's excessive steering maneuver on a slippery road. In this study, a factor analysis was performed for the alignment torque on a slippery road and the basic control to improve the vehicle dynamics stability is studied by using a linear m1odel. Next, a new control algorithm was developed based on these studies. Finally, the new control algorithm was verified to be effective through an on-vehicle test. The proposed strategy can be realized only by adding a steering wheel angle sensor signal to a conventional EPS. That can be easily obtained from electronic stability control system.
Technical Paper

A New Electric Current Control Strategy for EPS Motors

This paper presents a new motor current control strategy for Electric Power Steering (EPS) to reduce current fluctuation. Such current fluctuation may cause undesirable steering torque ripple and acoustic noise, if an inexpensive microprocessor is used. Using a DC-motor, current fluctuation associated with change in the battery voltage, etc., may occur. We have developed a new current control strategy which effectively alleviates current fluctuations of the motor without using higher performance microprocessors. The new controller is based on the estimation of disturbance voltage and compensation for this disturbance voltage. We have bench-tested the performance of this control strategy and confirmed that current fluctuation is reduced below that using conventional PI controller. The PI gain for the proposed controller is the same as that for the conventional controller.
Technical Paper

Offset paraboloidal reflector antenna for millimeter-wave radar

Vehicular collision avoidance radar systems using millimeter-wave have been developed in recent years. Because of their simple structures, a microstrip antenna or a lens antenna is often used as the radar antenna. However, the antenna efficiencies of these antennas are low, in general. Therefore, the types of antenna that have small antenna aperture are difficult to obtain high antenna gains. In addition, it is difficult to radiate many beams at narrow beam intervals with a lens antenna. We developed an offset paraboloidal reflector antenna (the OP antenna) for the vehicular collision avoidance radar. This antenna consists of one pyramidal horn antenna and one offset paraboloidal reflector. They pyramidal horn and the radio frequency unit (the RF unit) of the radar are fixed in the radar head. To scan the beam, only the reflector is rotated. Using a reflector-rotating mechanism, the OP antenna can radiate many beams toward different directions.
Technical Paper

An Online Estimation Method of Stability Factor of a Vehicle for Steering

In this paper, we suggest a novel algorithm to distinguish semi-steady states from various steering patterns and to estimate the stability factor. The algorithm also estimates each stability factor in left and right turns because there could be a case where they differ based on uneven tire wear and so on. The stability factor, which is the turning characteristic of a vehicle, has been treated as constant for most vehicle control systems. However, in fact, it may change in some situations, for example when a vehicle is overloaded. So there is a chance that a driver may be aware of an unusual sensation when vehicle control is designed based on a constant stability factor. We have succeeded in developing an algorithm to estimate the stability factor accurately enough to be able to compensate for it and have confirmed the effectiveness of the algorithm by simulation and vehicle testing as well.
Technical Paper

Fuel Breakup Near Nozzle Exit of High-Pressure Swirl Injector for Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Experimental investigations of fuel breakup very close to nozzle of practical high-pressure swirl injector, which is used in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, were carried out. In GDI engines, fuel is directly injected into cylinder therefore the spray characteristics and mixture formation are of primary importance. In this research, visualizations of primary spray formation process were demonstrated using a high-speed video camera (maximum speed: 1Mfps) with a long-distance microscope. Initial state and development of the spray were discussed under the different injection pressure condition. During the injection period, the length and thickness of the liquid sheet, which is produced from the nozzle exit, were measured using Ar-ion laser sheet and high-speed camera. Primary spray structure and behavior of liquid sheet, especially surface wave of liquid sheet, at nozzle exit were discussed using obtained images.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle State Detection Method Based on Estimated Aligning Torque Using EPS

This paper proposes a vehicle state detection method for improving the stability of vehicles equipped with electric power steering (EPS) and electronic stability control (ESC) systems. ESC is an effective vehicle stability control system that operates within a vehicle's stability limitations. Generally ESC uses a vehicle state signal such as yaw rate. To enhance the ESC function so that it can alleviate understeer, a process that is capable of detecting understeer is required. This concept motivated us to develop a vehicle state detection algorithm based on estimated self-aligning torque using EPS. It is well known that maximum self-aligning torque occurs before maximum cornering force is reached. We have confirmed that the proposed algorithm can detect understeer earlier than conventional means based on vehicle yaw rate.
Technical Paper

Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for More Electric Aircrafts

The more electric aircraft (MEA) concept has been attracting attention over recent decades to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In MEAs, many subsystems that previously used hydraulic or pneumatic power have been replaced by electrical systems, and hence the weight of inverters has significant importance. The weight of inverters is largely attributed to passive filters that reduce the derivative of output voltages dv/dt and electromagnetic interference noises caused by common-mode voltages. To reduce the size of passive filters, multilevel inverters with 5 or more voltage steps are preferred. However, classic multilevel inverters have some challenges to achieve these step numbers without using plural dc power supplies that require massive transformers. In this work, a gradationally controlled voltage (GCV) inverter is proposed for MEAs.
Technical Paper

Offset Paraboloidal Reflector Antenna for Vehicular Collision Avoidance Radar

An offset paraboloidal reflector antenna for vehicular collision avoidance radar is designed and evaluated. The antenna is designed to use at 77GHz band, and to have suitable gain and beamwidth for the vehicular collision avoidance radar. The properties measured and calculated are compared and confirmed to agree well. The offset paraboloidal reflector antenna is low-loss and has large degree of freedom of antenna design, compared with such as a microstrip antenna. So, using this type of the antenna for the radar system contributes to miniaturize, to make light weight, and to be easily mass-produced of the radar system.
Technical Paper

FMCW Automotive Radars Using Only In-Phase Channel

This paper describes a compact radar for automotive applications. A Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is employed here with only in-phase channel. Since this radar cannot detect a sign of beat frequency of receiving signals, we have the ambiguity about the range and the velocity of targets. In this paper, we propose a novel FMCW automotive radar to suppress this ambiguity.
Technical Paper

A Control Strategy to Reduce Steering Torque for Stationary Vehicles Equipped with EPS

This paper proposes a new Electric Power Steering (EPS) control strategy that enables remarkable progress on steering maneuverability for stationary vehicles. Using a conventional controller, undesirable steering vibration prevented us from reducing steering torque. To eliminate this vibration, we developed a new control strategy based on damping for specified frequency using a motor angular-velocity estimator. We experimented with this proposed control algorithm using a test vehicle and confirmed that it enables reduced steering torque without any perceived vibration for drivers. Concerning the gradient of the assist-map, the proposed control strategy enabled more than three times higher compared with that of the same type vehicles on the market as the test vehicle. This proposed control strategy requires only the torque sensor signal, supply voltage and current to the motor, which are used in the conventional EPS systems, so no supplemental sensors are required.
Technical Paper

A New EPS Control Strategy to Improve Steering Wheel Returnability

This paper proposes a new Electric Power Steering (EPS) control strategy that enables improvement to steering-wheel returnability. Using a conventional EPS controller, frictional loss torque in the steering mechanism reduces steering-wheel returnability, which drivers occasionally perceive as unpleasant. This phenomena occurs in any EPS system regardless of motor type or mounting location. To improve steering-wheel returnability for EPS-equipped vehicles, we developed a new control strategy based on estimation of alignment torque generated by tires and road surfaces. This proposed control strategy requires no supplemental sensors like steering-wheel angle or motor-angle sensors. We experimented with this proposed control algorithm using a test vehicle and confirmed that it enables improved steering wheel returnability and also better on-center feeling.
Technical Paper

GMR Revolution Sensors for Automobiles

We have developed a new series of revolution sensors using Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) elements. We call these GMR revolution sensors. In automotive applications, revolution sensors have traditionally utilized Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) elements. Recently, more sensitive revolution sensors are necessary for improved control of engines, braking systems and automatic transmissions. Since GMR elements have one order higher MR ratio than AMR elements, GMR revolution sensors are much more sensitive. Furthermore, GMR elements have been integrated with circuits on Si substrates. This integration simplify the assembly process and increases the reliability of the GMR revolution sensors. This paper discusses the superiority of GMR sensing elements over Hall and AMR elements. This paper also reports the characteristic results of the GMR sensor.
Technical Paper

Development of Recognition System for ICC using Sensitive Laser Radar

In JAPAN some ICCs (Intelligent Cruise Control systems) with recognition systems using Laser Radar have been produced since 1995. However these recognition systems have some improvement challenges; 1) Improvement of detectability for less reflective objects, 2) Improvement of identification performance of a vehicle to be tracked in the same lane (a target vehicle), 3) Improvement of detection performance under bad weather condition. We are developing a New Recognition System using sensitive Laser Radar with APD (Avalanche Photo Diode) as a solution for these challenges. In this paper, we will describe our experimental system using sensitive Laser Radar, especially, algorithm for target vehicle recognition and its performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Autonomous Driving System Using GNSS and High Definition Map

Recently, development of vehicle control system targeting Full Driving Automation (autonomous driving level 5) has advanced. Some applications of autonomous driving systems like the Lane Keeping Assist system (LKA) and Auto Lane Change system (ALC) (autonomous driving level 1-3) have been put on the market. However, the conventional system using information from front camera, it is difficult to operate in some situations. For example the road that no line, large curvature and number of lane increases or decreases. We propose an autonomous driving system using high accuracy vehicle position estimation technology and a high definition map. An LKA system calculates the target steering wheel angle based on both vehicle position information from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the target lane of high the definition map, according to the method of front gaze driver model. Then, the system controls steering the wheel angle by Electric Power Steering (EPS).
Technical Paper

Development of Lane Keeping Assist System Using Lateral-Position-Error Control at Forward Gaze Point

Mitsubishi Electric has been developing a lane keeping assist system (LKAS). This system consists of our products such as an electric power steering (EPS), a camera, and an electronic control unit (ECU) for ADAS. In this system, the camera detects a lane marker, the ECU estimates reference path and vehicle position, and calculates reference steering wheel angle, and the EPS controls a steering wheel angle based on reference steering wheel angle. In this paper, we explain the calculation method of reference steering wheel angle for path tracking control. We derive a formula of reference steering wheel angle calculation that converges lateral position deviation in desired time by using lateral position deviation change rate control on forward gaze point as path tracking control algorithm. Since the formula is obtained from the vehicle model, we can easily design a controller depending on the vehicle type, by using known vehicle specifications.
Technical Paper

Automotive Mini Disc Changer Mechanism

A new automotive Mini Disc (MD) changer mechanism has been developed which fits a 1 DIN size chassis. This mechanism, mainly consisting of a disc change mechanism and an anti-vibration mechanism employing a floating disc drive unit system, offers a high vibration resistance, quick disc change capability and a size small enough to set a unit in an instrumental panel (I/P).
Technical Paper

Trial of Target Vehicle Detection by Using Scanning Laser Radar

In vehicle distance warning systems using fixed beam laser radar false alarms often occur on curved roads. To solve these problems, we attempted to detect the target vehicle correctly by using a scanning laser radar on curved roads. This scanning laser radar has the advantage that it is able to measure the distance and direction of obstacles on roads. In this paper, we explain the following three items. The first is the configuration of the experimental system which we developed. The second is the method of target vehicle detection by using reflectors located along roads. The third is the performance of this experimental system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Scan Laser Radar

This paper is concerned with a scan laser radar sensor used to measure distance. It s a basic component of a vehicle distance warning system or an intelligent cruise control system. An intelligent cruise control system requires not only the distance to the object, but also the ability to detect movement of the preceding vehicle and the existence of any other nearby obstacle. However conventional radar sensor mainly fixed beam technology and measure only distance. Therefore, it s insufficient for the application to an intelligent cruise control system. Our newly developed scan laser radar transmits an extreme narrow beam and scans both transmission direction and reception direction simultaneously at a high measurement time rate. This scan laser radar can measure the lateral position of objects with high accuracy and good reconstruction level.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Electronically Controlled CVT with Electromagnetic-Clutch for Starting the Vehicle

In this paper, an application of variable structure systems (VSS)(1) to electromagnetic-clutch (EMC) control for starting vehicles is studied. Using a conventional open-loop controller, there is the case that changes in EMC dynamics lead to undesirable vehicle vibration though it may be rare. First, to overcome the above problem, we developed a control strategy based on VSS. The VSS control is robust with respect to changes in EMC dynamics. Second, we discussed the chattering problem of this controller in application to actual vehicle control. Finally, we confirmed the validity of the proposed control strategy and the appropriateness of the conditions for reduced chattering derived by simulation. The validity of this control strategy was also confirmed experimentally.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of EPS Control Strategy Using Driving Simulator for EPS

We have developed a driving simulator for Electric Power Steering (EPS), which can be used to evaluate steering maneuverability on low μ roads. The simulator calculates an 11 DOF (degrees of freedom) vehicle motion based on the steering wheel angle, the accelerator pedal position and the brake pedal position which are operated by the driver. A reaction torque corresponding to the alignment torque is applied to the steering shaft using motors. A 3D CG reproducing the view from the cockpit is displayed on a forward screen. The simulator also includes column type EPS, which generates the assist torque. Consequently, the driver feels the steering torque with good reality. The tire model we used is non-linear and it enables us to simulate the vehicle dynamics also on slippery roads. We compared driver behavior in vehicle and simulator tests and found the simulator could evaluate the relationship between steering maneuverability and EPS control strategy even when the road was slippery.