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Technical Paper

Offset paraboloidal reflector antenna for millimeter-wave radar

2000-06-12
2000-05-0378
Vehicular collision avoidance radar systems using millimeter-wave have been developed in recent years. Because of their simple structures, a microstrip antenna or a lens antenna is often used as the radar antenna. However, the antenna efficiencies of these antennas are low, in general. Therefore, the types of antenna that have small antenna aperture are difficult to obtain high antenna gains. In addition, it is difficult to radiate many beams at narrow beam intervals with a lens antenna. We developed an offset paraboloidal reflector antenna (the OP antenna) for the vehicular collision avoidance radar. This antenna consists of one pyramidal horn antenna and one offset paraboloidal reflector. They pyramidal horn and the radio frequency unit (the RF unit) of the radar are fixed in the radar head. To scan the beam, only the reflector is rotated. Using a reflector-rotating mechanism, the OP antenna can radiate many beams toward different directions.
Technical Paper

SOI Type Pressure Sensor for High Temperature Pressure Measurement

1994-03-01
940634
An SOI type pressure sensor has been developed which can measure pressure at high temperature environments above 150°C. SOI stands for Silicon On Insulator. A single-crystalline silicon layer is located on an insulating layer formed on a silicon substrate. The piezoresistors of the SOI type pressure sensor are made from the single-crystalline silicon layer which is isolated from the silicon substrate by the insulating layer. There is no leakage current from the piezoresistors. The SOI structure is made by the laser-recrystallization-method. The properties of the SOI type pressure senor are as good as conventional semiconductor pressure sensors.
Technical Paper

Development of Lane Keeping Assist System Using Lateral-Position-Error Control at Forward Gaze Point

2016-04-05
2016-01-0116
Mitsubishi Electric has been developing a lane keeping assist system (LKAS). This system consists of our products such as an electric power steering (EPS), a camera, and an electronic control unit (ECU) for ADAS. In this system, the camera detects a lane marker, the ECU estimates reference path and vehicle position, and calculates reference steering wheel angle, and the EPS controls a steering wheel angle based on reference steering wheel angle. In this paper, we explain the calculation method of reference steering wheel angle for path tracking control. We derive a formula of reference steering wheel angle calculation that converges lateral position deviation in desired time by using lateral position deviation change rate control on forward gaze point as path tracking control algorithm. Since the formula is obtained from the vehicle model, we can easily design a controller depending on the vehicle type, by using known vehicle specifications.
Technical Paper

Active Control for Body Vibration of F.W.D. Car

1986-03-01
860552
A Vehicle Vibration Control System by Active Control has been developed. The experimental results using a 4-cylinder gasoline engine installed in a car showed that at the position of the driver's seat, the acceleration of the vibration was reduced by 16 dB. This system operates stably and at low cost because of having a feedforward system, so many applications can be expected in the near future as methods for vehicle vibration reduction.
Technical Paper

Fuel Breakup Near Nozzle Exit of High-Pressure Swirl Injector for Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0542
Experimental investigations of fuel breakup very close to nozzle of practical high-pressure swirl injector, which is used in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, were carried out. In GDI engines, fuel is directly injected into cylinder therefore the spray characteristics and mixture formation are of primary importance. In this research, visualizations of primary spray formation process were demonstrated using a high-speed video camera (maximum speed: 1Mfps) with a long-distance microscope. Initial state and development of the spray were discussed under the different injection pressure condition. During the injection period, the length and thickness of the liquid sheet, which is produced from the nozzle exit, were measured using Ar-ion laser sheet and high-speed camera. Primary spray structure and behavior of liquid sheet, especially surface wave of liquid sheet, at nozzle exit were discussed using obtained images.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Control Systems that Improve Three Way Catalyst Conversion Efficiency

1991-02-01
910390
A fuel control method to reduce the harmful exhaust gas from SI engines is proposed. As is well known, both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle in a conventional air-fuel ratio control system are determined uniquely by parameters in the system. And this limits our making full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. A simple model of TWC reaction revealed the relationship between maximum conversion efficiency and both the amplitude and the frequency in a air fuel control system. It also revealed that TWC conversion efficiency attained to maximum levels when both the amplitude and the frequency of the limit cycle are selected so as to make full use of the oxygen storage effect of TWC. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to vary both the amplitude and the frequency arbitrarily.
Technical Paper

Piezoresistive Acceleration Sensor for Automotive Applications

1992-02-01
920476
A small. low-cost piezoresistive acceleration sensor suitable for automotive applications such as advanced breaking control and suspension control systems has been developed. A piezoresistive semiconductor sensor has such advantages as high output linearity, long-term output repeatability and DC response a piezoelectric sensor doesn't feature. One drawback. however, is that piezoresistive characteristics are quite temperature sensitive: Such that temperature dependence of DC offset and span have to be compensated with a certain electrical circuit. With 1 mV/Vs/G, the low sensitivity of the acceleration sensor [Vs:bridge voltage. G:gravitational acceleration], the temperature shift of DC offset represented in terms of the sensitivity, becomes relatively high.
Technical Paper

A Robust Cruise Control System Using the Disturbance Observer

1993-03-01
930771
A robust cruise control system using a disturbance observer is proposed. A control design method based on the two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) control including a disturbance observer is introduced. The proposed controller provides that: (1) input command responses are not affected by driving condition, such as vehicle speed, and road gradient (2) input command response and disturbance suppression performance can be designed independently (3) choice of an appropriate parameter value in the disturbance observer depending on the throttle opening gives a proper trade-off between the robust performance and the robust stability over a wide driving range. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed system is robust against both parameter variations and disturbances.
Technical Paper

FMCW Automotive Radars Using Only In-Phase Channel

1999-03-01
1999-01-0486
This paper describes a compact radar for automotive applications. A Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is employed here with only in-phase channel. Since this radar cannot detect a sign of beat frequency of receiving signals, we have the ambiguity about the range and the velocity of targets. In this paper, we propose a novel FMCW automotive radar to suppress this ambiguity.
Technical Paper

A Control Strategy to Reduce Steering Torque for Stationary Vehicles Equipped with EPS

1999-03-01
1999-01-0403
This paper proposes a new Electric Power Steering (EPS) control strategy that enables remarkable progress on steering maneuverability for stationary vehicles. Using a conventional controller, undesirable steering vibration prevented us from reducing steering torque. To eliminate this vibration, we developed a new control strategy based on damping for specified frequency using a motor angular-velocity estimator. We experimented with this proposed control algorithm using a test vehicle and confirmed that it enables reduced steering torque without any perceived vibration for drivers. Concerning the gradient of the assist-map, the proposed control strategy enabled more than three times higher compared with that of the same type vehicles on the market as the test vehicle. This proposed control strategy requires only the torque sensor signal, supply voltage and current to the motor, which are used in the conventional EPS systems, so no supplemental sensors are required.
Technical Paper

A New EPS Control Strategy to Improve Steering Wheel Returnability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0815
This paper proposes a new Electric Power Steering (EPS) control strategy that enables improvement to steering-wheel returnability. Using a conventional EPS controller, frictional loss torque in the steering mechanism reduces steering-wheel returnability, which drivers occasionally perceive as unpleasant. This phenomena occurs in any EPS system regardless of motor type or mounting location. To improve steering-wheel returnability for EPS-equipped vehicles, we developed a new control strategy based on estimation of alignment torque generated by tires and road surfaces. This proposed control strategy requires no supplemental sensors like steering-wheel angle or motor-angle sensors. We experimented with this proposed control algorithm using a test vehicle and confirmed that it enables improved steering wheel returnability and also better on-center feeling.
Technical Paper

Development of a Scan Laser Radar

1997-02-24
970172
This paper is concerned with a scan laser radar sensor used to measure distance. It s a basic component of a vehicle distance warning system or an intelligent cruise control system. An intelligent cruise control system requires not only the distance to the object, but also the ability to detect movement of the preceding vehicle and the existence of any other nearby obstacle. However conventional radar sensor mainly fixed beam technology and measure only distance. Therefore, it s insufficient for the application to an intelligent cruise control system. Our newly developed scan laser radar transmits an extreme narrow beam and scans both transmission direction and reception direction simultaneously at a high measurement time rate. This scan laser radar can measure the lateral position of objects with high accuracy and good reconstruction level.
Technical Paper

Trial of Target Vehicle Detection by Using Scanning Laser Radar

1997-02-24
970177
In vehicle distance warning systems using fixed beam laser radar false alarms often occur on curved roads. To solve these problems, we attempted to detect the target vehicle correctly by using a scanning laser radar on curved roads. This scanning laser radar has the advantage that it is able to measure the distance and direction of obstacles on roads. In this paper, we explain the following three items. The first is the configuration of the experimental system which we developed. The second is the method of target vehicle detection by using reflectors located along roads. The third is the performance of this experimental system.
Technical Paper

Offset Paraboloidal Reflector Antenna for Vehicular Collision Avoidance Radar

1999-03-01
1999-01-1237
An offset paraboloidal reflector antenna for vehicular collision avoidance radar is designed and evaluated. The antenna is designed to use at 77GHz band, and to have suitable gain and beamwidth for the vehicular collision avoidance radar. The properties measured and calculated are compared and confirmed to agree well. The offset paraboloidal reflector antenna is low-loss and has large degree of freedom of antenna design, compared with such as a microstrip antenna. So, using this type of the antenna for the radar system contributes to miniaturize, to make light weight, and to be easily mass-produced of the radar system.
Technical Paper

GMR Revolution Sensors for Automobiles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0540
We have developed a new series of revolution sensors using Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) elements. We call these GMR revolution sensors. In automotive applications, revolution sensors have traditionally utilized Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) elements. Recently, more sensitive revolution sensors are necessary for improved control of engines, braking systems and automatic transmissions. Since GMR elements have one order higher MR ratio than AMR elements, GMR revolution sensors are much more sensitive. Furthermore, GMR elements have been integrated with circuits on Si substrates. This integration simplify the assembly process and increases the reliability of the GMR revolution sensors. This paper discusses the superiority of GMR sensing elements over Hall and AMR elements. This paper also reports the characteristic results of the GMR sensor.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle State Detection Method Based on Estimated Aligning Torque Using EPS

2005-04-11
2005-01-1265
This paper proposes a vehicle state detection method for improving the stability of vehicles equipped with electric power steering (EPS) and electronic stability control (ESC) systems. ESC is an effective vehicle stability control system that operates within a vehicle's stability limitations. Generally ESC uses a vehicle state signal such as yaw rate. To enhance the ESC function so that it can alleviate understeer, a process that is capable of detecting understeer is required. This concept motivated us to develop a vehicle state detection algorithm based on estimated self-aligning torque using EPS. It is well known that maximum self-aligning torque occurs before maximum cornering force is reached. We have confirmed that the proposed algorithm can detect understeer earlier than conventional means based on vehicle yaw rate.
Technical Paper

An Online Estimation Method of Stability Factor of a Vehicle for Steering

2009-04-20
2009-01-0045
In this paper, we suggest a novel algorithm to distinguish semi-steady states from various steering patterns and to estimate the stability factor. The algorithm also estimates each stability factor in left and right turns because there could be a case where they differ based on uneven tire wear and so on. The stability factor, which is the turning characteristic of a vehicle, has been treated as constant for most vehicle control systems. However, in fact, it may change in some situations, for example when a vehicle is overloaded. So there is a chance that a driver may be aware of an unusual sensation when vehicle control is designed based on a constant stability factor. We have succeeded in developing an algorithm to estimate the stability factor accurately enough to be able to compensate for it and have confirmed the effectiveness of the algorithm by simulation and vehicle testing as well.
Technical Paper

Automotive Mini Disc Changer Mechanism

1996-02-01
960200
A new automotive Mini Disc (MD) changer mechanism has been developed which fits a 1 DIN size chassis. This mechanism, mainly consisting of a disc change mechanism and an anti-vibration mechanism employing a floating disc drive unit system, offers a high vibration resistance, quick disc change capability and a size small enough to set a unit in an instrumental panel (I/P).
Technical Paper

A New Electric Current Control Strategy for EPS Motors

2001-03-05
2001-01-0484
This paper presents a new motor current control strategy for Electric Power Steering (EPS) to reduce current fluctuation. Such current fluctuation may cause undesirable steering torque ripple and acoustic noise, if an inexpensive microprocessor is used. Using a DC-motor, current fluctuation associated with change in the battery voltage, etc., may occur. We have developed a new current control strategy which effectively alleviates current fluctuations of the motor without using higher performance microprocessors. The new controller is based on the estimation of disturbance voltage and compensation for this disturbance voltage. We have bench-tested the performance of this control strategy and confirmed that current fluctuation is reduced below that using conventional PI controller. The PI gain for the proposed controller is the same as that for the conventional controller.
Technical Paper

High Reliability High Pressure Sensor for Automotive Use

1987-02-01
870289
A piezoresistive semiconductor pressure sensor that can be measure high pressure upto 3.5 Mpa within ±1% error of FS (Full Scale) has been developed; it is suitable for use in automotive electronic control systems such as suspension, transmission, anti-skid brakes and air conditioners. This pressure sensor has a silicon diaphragm in which piezoresistive elements are diffused and form a wheatstone bridge circuit to newly developed to achieve high accuracy. High resisting pressure of more than 10 MPa (300% of rated pressure) and high sensitivity of more than 100mV/V supply ·3.5 MPa were achieved by the optimum designe of diaphragm shape.
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