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Technical Paper

Prediction of Occupant's Thermal Sensation under the Transient Environment in a Vehicle Compartment

2001-03-05
2001-01-0586
New numerical simulation system and experimental evaluation system has been developed to predict and evaluate occupant's thermal sensation in a passenger compartment in which environment is not steady and not uniform. Transitional effective temperature, which is new index of thermal sensation, is proposed and verified to correspond with subjects' thermal sensation votes. The simulation system has two advantage beside the prediction of thermal sensation; automatic generation of a computational model and coupling analysis of temperature including an analysis of temperature distribution inside a cabin, refrigerating cycle, solar radiation, and so on. It was verified that this system well predicts occupant's thermal sensation in a short time.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0550
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Model Selection and Reduction for Real Time Control Algorithm Design and Verification in Rapid Controller Prototyping Environment

2010-04-12
2010-01-0236
New systems or functionalities have been rapidly introduced for fuel economy improvement. Active vibration suppression has also been introduced. Control algorithm is required to be verified in real time environment to develop controller functionality in a short term. Required frequency domain property concept is proposed for representation of target phenomena with reduced models. It is shown how to select or reduce engine, transmission and vehicle model based on the concept. Engine torque profile which has harmonics of engine rotation is required for engine start, take-off from stand still, noise & vibration suppression and misfire detection for OBD simulation. An engine model which generates torque profile synchronous to crank angle was introduced and modified for real time simulation environment where load changes dynamically. Selected models and control algorithms were modified for real time environment and implemented into two linked universal controllers.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Two-stage Hybrid Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0113
Two-stage hybrid combustion for a 6-stroke gasoline direct injection SI engine is a new strategy to control the ignition of the HCCI combustion using hot-burned gas from the stratified lean SI combustion. This combustion is achieved by changing the camshafts, the cam-driven gear ratio and the engine control of a conventional 4-stroke gasoline direct injection engine without using a higher compression ratio, any fuel additives and induction air heating devices. The combustion processes are performed twice in one cycle. After the gas exchange process, the stratified ultra-lean SI combustion is performed. The hot-burned gas generated from this SI combustion is used as a trigger for the next HCCI combustion. After gasoline is injected in the burned gas, the hot and homogeneous lean mixture is recompressed without opening the exhaust valves. Thus the HCCI combustion occurs.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oil to Extend Oil Drain Intervals: 5W30 Fully Synthetic Oil Containing MoDTC

2000-06-19
2000-01-1992
In this study, the oxidation stability, soot dispersancy, antiwear performance, and friction-reducing capability of friction modifiers (FMs) were evaluated, and an SAE 5W-30 fully synthetic oil with MoDTC type FMs was developed for heavy-duty diesel engines. In several engine tests, it was confirmed that the developed oil can double the oil drain interval in comparison with API CD SAE 30, even when EGR is applied, and improves the fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 19-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971673
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed a new V configured 8 cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine (8M22T1) for the heavy-duty truck market. The engine is one of the first in its class to feature a common rail fuel injection system. This advanced engine management system was selected to meet the challenges of ever tightening emission regulation, specifically in the areas of smoke and noise. The 8M22T1 embodies a number of design innovations which have resulted in significant improvements in performance, fuel economy, durability and reliability.
Technical Paper

Development of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

1997-02-24
970541
The major problems of the various mixture formation concepts for direct injection gasoline engines that have been proposed up to the present were caused by the difficulties of preparing the mixture with adequate strength at spark plug in wide range of engine operating conditions. Novel combustion control technologies proposed by Mitsubishi is one of the solution for these problems. By adopting upright straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electromagnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. GDI™ (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting these technologies is developed. At partial loads, fuel economy improvement exceeding 30 % is realized.
Technical Paper

Ventilation Characteristics of Modeled Compact Car Part 3 Airflow Velocity Distribution with Foot Mode

2010-04-12
2010-01-1065
Following the previous reports, ventilation characteristics in automobile was investigated by using a half-scale car model which was created by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (JSAE). In the present study, the ventilation mode of the cabin was foot mode which was the ventilation method for using in winter season. Supplied air was blown from the supply openings under the dashboard to the rear of the model via the driver's foot region in this mode. The experiment was performed in order to obtain accurate data about the airflow properties equipped with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Our experimental data is to be shared as a standard model to assess the environment within automobiles. The data is also for use in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) benchmark tests in the development of automobile air conditioning, which enables high accuracy prediction of the interior environment of automobiles.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control Technologies for Direct Injection SI Engine

1996-02-01
960600
Novel combustion control technologies for the direct injection SI engine have been developed. By adopting up-right straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electro-magnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. At partial loads, fuel is injected into the piston cavity during the later stage of the compression stroke. Any fuel spray impinging on the cavity wall is directed to the spark plug. Tumbling air flow in the cavity also assists the conservation of the rich mixture zone around the spark plug. Stable combustion can be realized under a air fuel ratio exceeding 40. At higher loads, fuel is injected during the early stage of the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

Development of PM Trap System for Urban Buses

1996-02-01
960470
In response to stringent particulate matter (PM) emission regulations worldwide, developments of diesel particulate filter (DPF) continue apace in addition to engine modification for PM reduction. Particularly with buses used in urban areas, reduction methods in black smoke emissions are being researched in addition to the efforts to satisfy the aforementioned PM regulations. The system described in this paper was developed for use mainly with buses in large urban concentrations. The system described in this paper mainly consists of both wall-flow monolith filters for filtration of PM emissions and electric heaters for regeneration. A key feature of this system is that exhaust gas is used for effective combustion of PM during regeneration. With conventional systems, airpumps have been used to feed air for PM combustion during regeneration. With the new system, however, the use of an air pump was discontinued due to durability and cost considerations.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Reduction by ‘Soft Skirt’ Piston

2011-08-30
2011-01-2120
To reduce friction is required to improve engine fuel economy. This study aimed to reduce piston skirt friction, which is a major factor in engine friction. ‘Soft skirt’ is a trendy item in recent gasoline engines, which can improve skirt sliding condition by larger deformation when the piston is pressed to the liner. The effect is confirmed by friction measurement and oil film observation, using prototype pistons. And also one major factor of the effect is clarified that not only side force but also cylinder pressure causes effective deformation of the skirt to create thick oil film at early combustion stroke.
Technical Paper

EGR Technologies for a Turbocharged and Intercooled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970340
In this study three EGR methods were applied to a 12 liter turbocharged and intercooled Dl diesel engine, and the exhaust emission and fuel consumption characteristics were compared. One method is the Low Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from down stream of the turbine to the compressor entrance. The other two systems are variations of the High Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. One of the two High Pressure Route EGR systems is with back pressure valve located at downstream of the turbine and the other uses a variable geometry(VG) turbocharger. It was found that the High Pressure Route EGR system using VG turbocharger was the most effective and practical. With this method the EGR area could be enlarged and NOx reduced by 22% without increase in smoke or fuel consumption while maintaining an adequate excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Relationship Between MTBE-Blended Gasoline Properties and Warm-Up Driveability

1995-10-01
952519
The relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100°C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio (λ) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Combustion System (MCA-JET) in Gasoline Engine

1978-02-01
780007
A new combustion system - called MCA-JET- has been developed to improve combustion under the low speed, low load conditions typical of urban driving. Engines with this new system incorporate a special “jet valve”, in addition to the inlet and exhaust valves of the conventional combustion chamber, which directs air or a super-lean mixture towards the spark plug, and induces a strong swirling flow in the cylinder. This swirl persists during the compression and expansion processes, moves the mixture spirally and helps the flame to propagate. As a result, the combustion of lean mixtures, including those with exhaust gas recirculation, can be carried out rapidly and thus the fuel economy improved.
Technical Paper

Small Engine - Concept Emission Vehicles

1971-02-01
710296
Three Japanese automobile manufacturers-Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., and Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.-have been making efforts over the past three years to design and develop effective thermal reactor-exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter systems suitable for small engines. The work is being done by members participating in the IIEC (Inter-Industry Emission Control) Program, and the exhaust emission levels of the concept vehicles developed by these companies have met the goal established by the IIEC Program at low mileage. Each system, however, has a characteristic relationship between exhaust emission level and loss of fuel economy. Much investigation is required, particularly with respect to durability, before any system that will fully satisfy all service requirements can be completed. This paper reports the progress of research and development of the individual concept vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Particulate Trap Oxidizer System

1986-03-01
860294
A particulate trap oxidizer system to reduce diesel particulate emissions has been developed. This system consists of a ceramic foam filter with an optimum volume, shape, and mesh number in terms of collection efficiency, pressure loss and particulate blow-off; a catalyst with a low activated-temperature for particulate incineration and with no sulfate formation during highway driving; and a regeneration system which prevents particulate overcollection during long-term continuous low-load/low-speed driving where it is difficult to achieve self-burning of particulates with a catalytic reaction. This paper describes the development of the particulate trap oxidizer system with these technologies and presents the results of practicability evaluations and 50,000-mile vehicle durability tests.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modes of Light Duty Diesel Particulates in Ceramic Filters with Fuel Additives

1986-03-01
860292
Auto-regeneration of diesel particulate traps, particularly combustion mode of soot in a wall flow filter with fuel additives, was investigated using a diesel engine of a light duty truck and truck itself. Soot burning in the trap and regeneration were observed under any engine operating condition including prolonged idling and stop-and-go driving at 0.18g metal/1 dosage of a mixture of copper and lead in the fuels. However, trap life was limited by ash clogging due to the metallic compounds. Although the influence of metallic additives on the environment was debatable, test results of the trap durability and calculations of soot burning based on the thermal ignition theory indicated that dosage and kind of fuel additives should be optimized in view of both trap life and reliability of soot burning.
Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Cooling System Performance

1993-03-01
930146
This paper describes a method of predicting cooling performance in order to obtain the optimum design of the cooling system and front-end shape in the early stage of car development. This method consists of four calculation parts: thermal load on the cooling system, air flow through the engine compartment, heat dissipation by the heat exchangers and temperature distribution within the cooling system. It outputs the coolant, engine oil, automatic transmission fluid (A.T.F.) and charge air temperatures in exchange for the input of several car, power plant, drive train, exterior shape and cooling system specifications. For the calculations, in addition to theoretical formulas, several experimental formulas are introduced. This method verification is shown by presenting a few test cases for the respective calculation parts and the final solution.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Catalytic Converter Location Achieved with a Curve Catalytic Honeycomb Substrate

1994-03-01
940743
A new type of catalytic converter has been developed for the coming TLEV (Transitional Low Emission Vehicle) standards. It is a “Front Curve Catalytic Converter (FCCC)” using a curved cordierite ceramic honeycomb substrate. During this development, an optimum location and volume of the front curve catalytic converter were determined from the view points of thermal deterioration of the catalyst and hydrocarbon conversion performance. Based on CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) analysis, the best curvature radius of the substrate was selected to minimize a pressure drop of the front curve catalytic converter. The emission conversion and light-off performances of the front curve catalytic converter were compared with a conventional straight design. A series of durability tests; hot vibration, engine dynamometer and vehicle fleet tests were also conducted to confirm the reliability of the new front curve catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Development of Anti-Corrosion Steel Sheet Containing Copper for Automobile Body Parts

1994-03-01
940538
An investigation of anti-corrosion steel sheets (non-galvanized) which contain copper for automobile body parts has been conducted. Copper additives accelerate the formation of amorphous substrates. These substrates decrease the rate of corrosion. In order to retain the steel's formability and weldability, the contents of the alloying elements have been optimized. As a result, this newly developed steel sheet can be used for many different applications such as door sashes and door panels of mass produced cars. This paper describes the key properties of the newly developed steel sheet and additionally the mechanism of corrosion prevention, weldability, formability, and so on.
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