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Technical Paper

Mixing Control and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0550
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed.
Technical Paper

EGR Technologies for a Turbocharged and Intercooled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970340
In this study three EGR methods were applied to a 12 liter turbocharged and intercooled Dl diesel engine, and the exhaust emission and fuel consumption characteristics were compared. One method is the Low Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from down stream of the turbine to the compressor entrance. The other two systems are variations of the High Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. One of the two High Pressure Route EGR systems is with back pressure valve located at downstream of the turbine and the other uses a variable geometry(VG) turbocharger. It was found that the High Pressure Route EGR system using VG turbocharger was the most effective and practical. With this method the EGR area could be enlarged and NOx reduced by 22% without increase in smoke or fuel consumption while maintaining an adequate excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi 2.8L Four-Cylinder Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940587
In the light commercial vehicles (LCV) market, primarily cross-country 4-wheel drive station wagons and derived cargo vans, diesel powered vehicles have been gaining popularity among customers because of their increased fuel economy. In the Japanese market particularly, total sales of such types of vehicles have been rapidly growing. The volume is about 3 times larger than the last five years with diesel engines having a steady share of about 90 percent. Under such circumstances the customers' requirements for diesel vehicles are becoming more severe. Their primary demands have been for increased power, low noise, low vibration and clean smoke, similar to those found in gasoline engines. On the other hand, the exhaust gaseous emission regulations of the diesel engines are getting strict and will become very severe in the near future. We, MITSUBISHI MOTORS CORPORATION, have been producing a 2.5 L 4-cylinder diesel, the 4D56 Series, for the LCVs.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Catalytic Converter Location Achieved with a Curve Catalytic Honeycomb Substrate

1994-03-01
940743
A new type of catalytic converter has been developed for the coming TLEV (Transitional Low Emission Vehicle) standards. It is a “Front Curve Catalytic Converter (FCCC)” using a curved cordierite ceramic honeycomb substrate. During this development, an optimum location and volume of the front curve catalytic converter were determined from the view points of thermal deterioration of the catalyst and hydrocarbon conversion performance. Based on CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) analysis, the best curvature radius of the substrate was selected to minimize a pressure drop of the front curve catalytic converter. The emission conversion and light-off performances of the front curve catalytic converter were compared with a conventional straight design. A series of durability tests; hot vibration, engine dynamometer and vehicle fleet tests were also conducted to confirm the reliability of the new front curve catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Optimized Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for the European Market

1998-02-23
980150
GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting new combustion control technologies was developed and introduced into Japanese domestic market in August of 1996. In order to extend its application to the European market, various system modifications have been performed. Injectors are located with a smaller angle to the vertical line in order to improve the combustion stability in the higher speed range. A new combustion control method named “two-stage mixing” is adopted to suppress the knock in the low speed range. As a result of this new method, the compression ratio was increased up to 12.5 to 1 while increasing the low-end torque significantly. Taking the high sulfur gasoline in the European market into account, a selective reduction lean-NOx catalyst with improved NOx conversion efficiency was employed. A warm-up catalyst can not be used because the selective reduction lean NOx catalyst requires HC for the NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 19-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971673
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed a new V configured 8 cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine (8M22T1) for the heavy-duty truck market. The engine is one of the first in its class to feature a common rail fuel injection system. This advanced engine management system was selected to meet the challenges of ever tightening emission regulation, specifically in the areas of smoke and noise. The 8M22T1 embodies a number of design innovations which have resulted in significant improvements in performance, fuel economy, durability and reliability.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

1993-11-01
932958
The authors used a mass spectrometer to determine an SOF reduction mechanism of a diesel oxidation catalyst. The results indicate that SOF reduction lies in the catalytic conversion of high molecular organic matter to low molecular organic matter. And unregulated emissions are also reduced through this conversion. It is also found that the SOF reduction performance is highly dependent up on the condition of the wash coat. There is some limitation to improving diesel oxidation catalyst performance because of the sulfur content found in diesel fuel. Finally, the authors have determined what we think are the specifications of the presently best catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

Selective Heat Insulation of Combustion Chamber Walls for a DI Diesel Engine with Monolithic Ceramics

1989-02-01
890141
The engine performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder DI diesel engine were experimentally investigated. The combustion chamber walls of the engine were thermally insulated with ceramic materials of SSN (Sintered Silicon Nitride) and PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia). Fuel economy and emissions characteristics were improved by insulating selected locations of the combustion chamber walls. The selective insulation helped to create activated diffusion combustion and resulted in more efficient use of the intake air.
Technical Paper

Mitsubishi New 12.0-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

1990-09-01
901572
To meet the increasingly strong demand for high-speed transportation, better fuel economy, higher reliability and the social requirements for more strict Japanese regulations against exhaust and noise emissions, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation has recently developed the 6D40T1 in-line 6-cylinder, 12.0-liter turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine for heavy-duty trucks. This engine meets the 1989 Japanese exhaust emission regulations and has an output of 258 kW. To achieve both fuel economy and good drivability, Mitsubishi's original, electronically-controlled fuel injection system was adopted. The so-called prestroke-controlled fuel injection pump is capable of flexible and precise control of both fuel injection rate and timing. The basic structure of the 6D40T1 was designed with high rigidity to permit high cylinder pressures. In addition, to reduce friction and heat losses, a 4-valve design, roller cam followers with needle roller bearings, and shortened exhaust ports were adopted.
Technical Paper

A Particulate Trap System Using Electric Heating Regeneration for Small Trucks

1992-02-01
920141
A trap system has been developed that collects particulate using two small filters and regenerates alternately by electric heaters. This system contains a new idea in detection of the amount of particulate accumulation in the filters. The system counts the amount using a particulate accumulation rate map which is a function of the engine load and speed. In vehicle test with this trap system, the particulate collection efficiency and the regeneration efficiency were proved to be high enough for practical use. The test results also showed that the shutdown performance of the route switch valve greatly influenced the regeneration efficiency.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 20 Liter Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920085
In the heavy-duty commercial vehicle market in Japan, particularly in the segment of dump trucks and tractors, naturally aspirated engines maintain a dominant market share because of their superior torque characteristics in the low speed range. In order to meet the ever increasing needs for higher speeds of transportation, better fuel economy and higher reliability, and the needs for increasingly strict exhaust emission regulations, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed the 8M20, a 20 liter V8 diesel engine. The '92 model series of “THE GREAT”, MMC's main heavy-duty trucks, has featured this new and powerful engine and has been in the market place since October, 1991. The 8M20 is a naturally aspirated engine that provides an output of 294kW/2200rpm, complying with the current Japanese exhaust emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Engines for the 21st Century

1991-09-01
911908
During next decade, automotive engineers will take up unprecedented challenges to meet a variety of technical demands on passenger cars. While performance, refinement and reliability will continue to be major technical goals of passenger cars, reducing their impact on the environment not only in urban areas but also on the global basis will become an increasingly urgent issue. In addition, the need for energy and resources saving will necessitate development of more fuel efficient cars, exploitation of alternative energy and recycled materials. In this paper, the authors will review various alternative engines as candidates to satisfy the above demands. The authors will also discuss various alternative transportation energy sources such as alcoholic fuels, natural gas, hydrogen and electricity. Finally the trends of future passenger car engine design will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1991 U.S.A. Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

1990-10-01
902233
Protection of the Earth's environment by means of energy saving and cleaning up of air pollution on a global scale is one of the most important subjects in the world today. Because of this, the requirements for better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines have been getting stronger, and, in particular, simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) without degrading fuel economy has become a major subject. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MM) has been selling diesel-powered heavy-duty trucks in the U.S. market since 1985 and has agressively carried out development work for meeting the 1991 model year exhaust emission standards.
Technical Paper

Development of the Stainless Cast-Steel Exhaust Manifold

1993-03-01
930621
At Mitsubishi Motors, a thin-walled exhaust manifold, made of stainless cast-steel, has been developed with the aim of achieving higher heat-resisting reliability as well as weight reduction. The new exhaust manifold is made of ferritic stainless cast-steel, employing an advanced vacuum casting (CLAS). Its geometry was designed using finite element analysis and its durability was confirmed by testing both on various test devices and on a vehicle. The exhaust manifolds has been adopted on a production engine model and has proven the following advantages over a conventional cast-iron ones; excellent heat resistance. weight reduction of over 20%. possible exhaust emission reduction as a result of lower heat-capacity of the exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multi-Mode Variable Valve Timing Engine

1993-03-01
930878
The 4-stroke SI engine offers better performance if its valve events can be varied depending on the operating conditions. Some engines in production are therefore incorporated with variable valve timing (VVT) mechanisms. All of such mechanisms available today however are for two-mode change-over between low-and high-speed operations. To achieve even better output and fuel economy, a new multi-mode VVT mechanism has been developed, featured by a unique hydraulic device for three-mode change-over as follows: Deactivate both intake and exhaust valves Select low-speed cam with moderate lifts and short durations Select high-speed cam with high lifts and long durations This mechanism enables shutting off unnecessary cylinders during low-speed cruise, or select optimum valve events during WOT acceleration over the entire engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1994 USA Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1993-10-01
932654
Recent global environmental problems which have come to light must be solved for ensuring the survival of the human race. And it is of the utmost importance that we give to our descendants a world full of nature and beauty. In the past years Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has long been positive in research and the development activities so as to satisfy the demands for low emission and good fuel economy vehicles. (1) As one example of our research efforts, the technology that will meet the US '94 HDDE exhaust emission regulations, which is one of the most stringent regulations in the world, is described in this paper. The exhaust emissions were reduced by improvement of combustion, using the pre-stroke control type fuel injection pump and optimizing the combustion chamber shape. Efforts were also made to improve the oil consumption, in order to reduce PM (Particulate Matter) emission.
Technical Paper

Small Engine - Concept Emission Vehicles

1971-02-01
710296
Three Japanese automobile manufacturers-Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., and Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.-have been making efforts over the past three years to design and develop effective thermal reactor-exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter systems suitable for small engines. The work is being done by members participating in the IIEC (Inter-Industry Emission Control) Program, and the exhaust emission levels of the concept vehicles developed by these companies have met the goal established by the IIEC Program at low mileage. Each system, however, has a characteristic relationship between exhaust emission level and loss of fuel economy. Much investigation is required, particularly with respect to durability, before any system that will fully satisfy all service requirements can be completed. This paper reports the progress of research and development of the individual concept vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Particulate Trap Oxidizer System

1986-03-01
860294
A particulate trap oxidizer system to reduce diesel particulate emissions has been developed. This system consists of a ceramic foam filter with an optimum volume, shape, and mesh number in terms of collection efficiency, pressure loss and particulate blow-off; a catalyst with a low activated-temperature for particulate incineration and with no sulfate formation during highway driving; and a regeneration system which prevents particulate overcollection during long-term continuous low-load/low-speed driving where it is difficult to achieve self-burning of particulates with a catalytic reaction. This paper describes the development of the particulate trap oxidizer system with these technologies and presents the results of practicability evaluations and 50,000-mile vehicle durability tests.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modes of Light Duty Diesel Particulates in Ceramic Filters with Fuel Additives

1986-03-01
860292
Auto-regeneration of diesel particulate traps, particularly combustion mode of soot in a wall flow filter with fuel additives, was investigated using a diesel engine of a light duty truck and truck itself. Soot burning in the trap and regeneration were observed under any engine operating condition including prolonged idling and stop-and-go driving at 0.18g metal/1 dosage of a mixture of copper and lead in the fuels. However, trap life was limited by ash clogging due to the metallic compounds. Although the influence of metallic additives on the environment was debatable, test results of the trap durability and calculations of soot burning based on the thermal ignition theory indicated that dosage and kind of fuel additives should be optimized in view of both trap life and reliability of soot burning.
Technical Paper

Improvements of Exhaust Gas Emissions and Cold Startability of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines by New Injection-Rate-Control Pump

1986-09-01
861236
In order to investigate the effects of high injection pressure on engine performance and exhaust emissions, some experimental high injection pressure in-line pumps were made and tested. Increasing fuel spray momentum by high injection pressure could reduce smoke emission, but excessive increase in injection pressure was found not so effective in further reducing smoke emission. Accordingly, a high injection pressure should be accomplished within the low engine speed range a feature that has been very difficult to achieve for a conventional in-line pump. An electronic controlled injection-rate-control pump with a variable prestroke mechanism can provide higher injection pressure in low engine speed range and advances injection timing in high engine speed range. This pump can improve fuel economy in low engine speed range and emissions (smoke and particulate) over transient FTP for HDE's.
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