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Technical Paper

Idling Stop System Coupled with Quick Start Features of Gasoline Direct Injection

2001-03-05
2001-01-0545
The gasoline direct injection engine starts significantly faster than a conventional engine. Fuel can be injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke at the same time of cranking start. When the spark plug ignites the mixture at the end of compression stroke, the engine has its first combustion, that is, the first combustion occurs within 0.2 sec after the start of cranking. This unique characteristic of quick startability has realized a idle stop system, which enables drivers to operate the vehicle in a natural manner.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0550
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed.
Technical Paper

Innovative injection rate control with next-generation, common-rail fuel injection system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0061
Injection rate control is an important capability of the ideal injection system of the future. However, in a conventional Common-Rail System (CRS) the injection pressure is constant throughout the injection period, resulting in a nearly rectangular injection rate shape and offering no control of the injection rate. Thus, in order to realize injection rate control with a CRS, a "Next- generation Common-Rail System (NCRS)" was conceptualized, designed, and fabricated. The NCRS has two common rails, for low- and high-pressure fuel, and switches the fuel pressure supplied to the injector from the low- to the high- pressure rail during the injection period, resulting in control over the injection rate shape. The effects of injection rate shape on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were investigated by applying this NCRS to a single- cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of the Active Yaw Moment Control

1995-02-01
950303
This paper presents a new torque distribution system-“Right/Left Torque Control System”, aimed at improving a vehicle's cornering properties by using yaw moment control. The torque transfer mechanisms of this system have been analyzed. Also, a yaw moment control algorithm using yaw rate feedback control has been designed. Next, vehicle cornering properties were evaluated using numerical simulation developed from data taken from an actual vehicle. As a result, improvements were achieved in the maneuverability and stability of a vehicle during cornering.
Technical Paper

Relationship Between MTBE-Blended Gasoline Properties and Warm-Up Driveability

1995-10-01
952519
The relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100°C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio (λ) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated.
Technical Paper

Optimization of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixing for a Center-Spark Four-Valve Engine Employing the Concept of Barrel-Stratification

1994-03-01
940986
Flow and flame structure visualization and modeling were performed to clarify the characteristics of bulk flow, turbulence and mixing in a four-valve engine to adopt the lean combustion concept named “Barrel-Stratification” to the larger displacement center-spark four-valve engine. It was found that the partitions provided in the intake port and the tumble-control piston with a curved-top configuration were effective to enhance the lean combustion of such an engine. By these methods, the fuel distribution in the intake port and the in-cylinder bulk flow structure are optimized, so that the relatively rich mixture zone is arranged around the spark plug. The tumble-control piston also contributes to optimize the flow field structure after the distortion of tumble and to enable stable lean combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control Technologies for Direct Injection SI Engine

1996-02-01
960600
Novel combustion control technologies for the direct injection SI engine have been developed. By adopting up-right straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electro-magnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. At partial loads, fuel is injected into the piston cavity during the later stage of the compression stroke. Any fuel spray impinging on the cavity wall is directed to the spark plug. Tumbling air flow in the cavity also assists the conservation of the rich mixture zone around the spark plug. Stable combustion can be realized under a air fuel ratio exceeding 40. At higher loads, fuel is injected during the early stage of the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Wind Throb Using CFD and Flow Visualization

1997-02-24
970407
Passenger cars with sunroofs sometimes experience a low frequency pulsation noise called “wind throb” when traveling with the roof open. This “wind throb” should be suppressed because it is an unpleasant noise which can adversely affect the acoustic environment inside a car. In this paper, 3-dimensional numerical flow analysis is applied around a car body to investigate the wind throb phenomenon. The computational scheme and the modeling method of the car body is first described. A flow visualization test in a water tunnel was completed for the simple car body shape to compare against the numerical procedure. The numerical and the visualized results compared well and the numerical simulation method employed was considered to be a reliable tool to analyze the wind throb phenomenon. Calculated results of pressure and vorticity distribution in the sunroof opening were analyzed with the spectrum of pressure fluctuation at the sunroof opening with and without a deflector.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control Strategy for Engine Performance Improvement in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

1998-02-23
980158
Spray motion visualization, mixture strength measurement, flame spectral analyses and flame behavior observation were performed in order to elucidate the mixture preparation and the combustion processes in Mitsubishi GDI engine. The effects of in-cylinder flow called reverse tumble on the charge stratification were clarified. It preserves the mixture inside the spherical piston cavity, and extends the optimum injection timing range. Mixture strength at the spark plug and at the spark timing can be controlled by changing the injection timing. It was concluded that reverse tumble plays a significant role for extending the freedom of mixing. The characteristics of the stratified charge combustion were clarified through the flame radiation analyses. A first flame front with UV luminescence propagates rapidly and covers all over the combustion chamber at the early stage of combustion.
Technical Paper

Optimized Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for the European Market

1998-02-23
980150
GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting new combustion control technologies was developed and introduced into Japanese domestic market in August of 1996. In order to extend its application to the European market, various system modifications have been performed. Injectors are located with a smaller angle to the vertical line in order to improve the combustion stability in the higher speed range. A new combustion control method named “two-stage mixing” is adopted to suppress the knock in the low speed range. As a result of this new method, the compression ratio was increased up to 12.5 to 1 while increasing the low-end torque significantly. Taking the high sulfur gasoline in the European market into account, a selective reduction lean-NOx catalyst with improved NOx conversion efficiency was employed. A warm-up catalyst can not be used because the selective reduction lean NOx catalyst requires HC for the NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi L4 5-Liter DI Diesel Engine

1998-11-16
982800
The 4M5 series of four-cylinder, in-line, direct-injection diesel engines has been released by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation for light and medium-duty trucks and buses. Featuring an updated structure and reflecting the employment of state-of-the-art technology in the design of every component, the new engine series offers high reliability and compact dimensions. Moreover, the new series well meets contemporary demands for high performance, low noise, and clean combustion.
Technical Paper

Technology for Low Emission, Combustion Noise and Fuel Consumption on Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940672
In order to reduce exhaust emission and combustion noise and to improve fuel consumption, the effects of the combustion system parameters of a diesel engine, such as injection pressure, injection nozzle hole diameter, swirl ratio, and EGR rate on exhaust emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption are investigated and described in detail by analyzing rate of heat release, needle valve lift and injection pressure. Based on these results, reduction of exhaust emission and combustion noise and improvement of fuel consumption are described in the latter part of this paper. These results are shown as follows. The smaller nozzle hole diameter is effective for reducing smoke and PM, and by optimizing the injection timing and swirl ratio, NOx can also be reduced. In addition to the above, by applying EGR and higher injection pressure it is possible to improve the fuel consumption with the remaining low NOx and PM.
Technical Paper

Selective Heat Insulation of Combustion Chamber Walls for a DI Diesel Engine with Monolithic Ceramics

1989-02-01
890141
The engine performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder DI diesel engine were experimentally investigated. The combustion chamber walls of the engine were thermally insulated with ceramic materials of SSN (Sintered Silicon Nitride) and PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia). Fuel economy and emissions characteristics were improved by insulating selected locations of the combustion chamber walls. The selective insulation helped to create activated diffusion combustion and resulted in more efficient use of the intake air.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Vehicle Interior Control

1991-02-01
910472
In order to meet increasing demands for safety and comfort in a vehicle compartment, automatic adjustment of seat, mirrors, steering wheel has been developed. The multiplex wiring system was constructed for the automatic adjustment of the cockpit elements to drivers preferred positions or to physique-matched settings based on ergonomic data. This paper describes the construction of the multiplex system and functions of automatic adjustment of the cockpit elements for comfortable driving position and better visibility.
Technical Paper

A Particulate Trap System Using Electric Heating Regeneration for Small Trucks

1992-02-01
920141
A trap system has been developed that collects particulate using two small filters and regenerates alternately by electric heaters. This system contains a new idea in detection of the amount of particulate accumulation in the filters. The system counts the amount using a particulate accumulation rate map which is a function of the engine load and speed. In vehicle test with this trap system, the particulate collection efficiency and the regeneration efficiency were proved to be high enough for practical use. The test results also showed that the shutdown performance of the route switch valve greatly influenced the regeneration efficiency.
Technical Paper

A New Oxygen Storage Componented Oxygen Sensor for the Emission Reductions of the Three-Way Catalyst System

1990-10-01
902120
A new prototype oxygen storage componented oxygen sensor has been developed which shows significant emission reductions of a 3-way catalyst system. This sensor is composed of ceria, as an oxygen storage component and supported pellets as a buffer layer surrounding the protective coating of the sensor element. This sensor offers a more rapid response than conventional ones under lean and rich fuel mixture excursions, which is caused by CO or O2 electrode poisoning.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Torque Converter-Its Effect on Acceleration Performance of Auto-Trans. Equipped Vehicles

1990-02-01
900554
In previous studies(1)(2), the acceleration performance of vehicles equipped with torque converter has been analysed with the assumption that the converter characteristic was under continued steady-state. However, in case of sharp acceleration of the fluid flow in the converter from inactive flow condition, which would occur at wide-open throttle starting, it is not possible to accurately analyse the vehicle performance at immediately after starting if the converter characteristic is assumed to remain under steady-state condition. In this paper, the transient phenomenon in the converter is verified by applying the theory of angular momentum and the concept of energy balance through the converter elements providing with a dynamic-model for the driveline. The present study has clarified the effect of the transient converter characteristic, at sharp starting, on the acceleration performance.
Technical Paper

Control Method of Autonomous Vehicle Considering Compatibility of Riding Comfort and Vehicle Controllability

1990-08-01
901486
This paper describes a control strategy for autonomous vehicles in an intelligent vehicle/highway system. The control concept aims at the compatibility of passenger riding comfort and vehicle controllability. The main subject of this paper is lateral control of vehicles. In order to analyze riding comfort, we have experimented on the lateral riding comfort during a lane change. It was found that the riding comfort is mainly related to the jerk more than the acceleration, and that the trajectory pattern is important. According to the experimental results, a motion control system was designed. We found through the computer simulation and the experiment with an autonomous test vehicle that comfortable ride is realized along with system stability. Lastly, in order to apply this strategy to the longitudinal direction, we have experimented on the longitudinal acceleration with the test vehicle. The results shows that the same strategy is applicable to the longitudinal direction.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Fuel Transport Lag and Statistical Perturbation in Combustion to Oscillation of SI Engine Speed at Idle

1987-02-01
870545
Periodic oscillations of the speed of SI engine with MPI system at idle observed in the steady state and in the converging process after the inditial increase of load were investigated. These non-steady phenomena are the self-excitations of the closed-loop system induced by the lag factors inherent to the system such as the manifold charging delay and the fuel metering and transport lag and by the nonlinear factors such as the sensitivity of the torque to the equivalence ratio. But, even in the cases where the lags and the nonlinearity are insufficient, continuous oscillations with large amplitude are observed in the actual engine. They can be explained by introducing the concept of external perturbation induced by the combustion fluctuation. Disturbance prevents the phase lag in the system from converging, resulting in the continuation of oscillation.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of the Road Profile Measuring System

1993-03-01
930257
A high-performance road profile measuring system has developed. The measuring system consists of four laser displacement sensors and an optical speed sensor. It has the advantage of making high-accuracy measurements during a regular run, on a public road, and without any traffic restriction. The measurement is hardly affected by bouncing and pitching motions of the vehicle. The four displacement sensors are arranged at unequal intervals in the direction of vehicle. A road profile is calculated from sensor outputs. This paper describes not only the development of this unique measuring system but also its application to a vehicle behavior. Significant measurements of typical and peculiar public roads in Japan and Northern Europe by the measuring vehicle have been performed for the last few years. The features of these roads are described by the power spectrum densities and the profiles.
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