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Technical Paper

Development of a Hydrogen Powered Medium Duty Truck

1987-11-08
871168
Considerable amount of research work on hydrogen fueled engines has been conducted for 17 years in Musashi Institute of Technology. The primary purpose of the research has been to develop a hydrogen powered autmobile, and in order to realized it, various innovations have been applied and tested. The newest outcome of this 17 years research was Musashi-7 Track, which demonstrated its performance in Innovation vehicle Design Competition held in Vancouver in July 1986. Musashi-7 Track was a modified medium duty truck, which was originally made by Hino Motors, and had a hydrogen powered engine. The track was equipped with 150 ℓ liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and 8 MPa high pressure LH2 pump. The pump delivered 8 MPa high pressure hydrogen gas to the engine and the fuel was injected to a hot surface igniter in DI combustion chamber. This type of hydrogen enigne has following advantages. Firstly, fuel corrier weight and volume can be much smaller than those of metal-hydrides (MH).
Technical Paper

Part 2: The Effects of Lubricating Oil Film Thickness Distribution on Gasoline Engine Piston Friction

2007-04-16
2007-01-1247
Due to increasing economic and environmental performance requirements of internal combustion engines, piston manufacturers now focus more on lower friction designs. One factor strongly influencing the friction behavior of pistons is the dynamic interaction between lubricating oil, cylinder bore and piston. Therefore, the dynamic effect of the oil film in the gap between the liner and piston has been studied, using a single cylinder engine equipped with a sapphire window. This single cylinder engine was also equipped with a floating liner, enabling real-time friction measurement, and directly linking the oil film behavior to friction performance of pistons.
Journal Article

Summary and Progress of the Hydrogen ICE Truck Development Project

2009-06-15
2009-01-1922
A development project for a hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) system for trucks supporting Japanese freightage has been promoted as a candidate for use in future vehicles that meet ultra-low emission and anti-global warming targets. This project aims to develop a hydrogen ICE truck that can handle the same freight as existing trucks. The core development technologies for this project are a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen ICE system and a liquid hydrogen tank system which has a liquid hydrogen pump built-in. In the first phase of the project, efforts were made to develop the DI hydrogen ICE system. Over the past three years, the following results have been obtained: A high-pressure hydrogen gas direct injector developed for this project was applied to a single-cylinder hydrogen ICE and the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) corresponding to a power output of 147 kW in a 6-cylinder hydrogen ICE was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Piston Slap Motion and Engine Noise under Low Temperature Idling Operation of Diesel Engines

1983-02-01
830066
Diesel engines make a shrill noise called “idle knock” under low temperature idling operation. This causes a serious noise pollution problem in automobile diesel engines. It was clarified by this study that one important source of this noise was piston slap impulse. Piston slap motion was measured under usual operating conditions and a condition with additional oil supplied into the piston clearance. The piston slap motion was calculated taking into account the frictional resistances of the crank mechanism and squeeze action of oil film. It was concluded that only a negligible amount of oil existed in the piston clearance for the squeeze action.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer into Ceramic Combustion Chamber Wall of Internal Combustion Engines

1986-09-01
861276
The authors developed the optimum thin film thermocouples in terms of materials, shape and dimensions to make instantaneous surface temperature and heat flux measurements of combustion chamber wall in internal combustion engines with accuracy by the computer analysis. And they succeeded to make thin film thermocouple in ceramic piston, by the application of the above technique. Then, the instantaneous surface temperature was measured to obtained the instantaneous heat flux on the ceramic plate fixed on top of the piston.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Combustion Study in Direct Infection Hot Surface Ignition Engine

1986-10-01
861579
The hydrogen combustion characteristics have been studied in a late-injection (near TDC) hot surface ignition engine. As a supplemental experiment, the mode of combustion was observed in a constant volume combustion chamber by the schlieren method. Consequently the combustion process, that was the flame propagation initiated by a hot surface through heterogeneous hydrogen jets, was not the same as that of a diesel engine. The experimental results in test engine showed the optimum number of injection holes and the effect of intake air swirl for better mixture formation. It was observed that the combustion was frequently accompanied by non-negligible combustion pressure vibrations at all engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion Pressure Vibration in Hydrogen Fuel Injection Hot Surface Ignition Engines

1987-09-01
871611
In high pressure hydrogen injection hot surface ignition engines under nearly all engine operating conditions combustion pressure vibration is generated just after ignition. As a result of many experimental investigations the true nature for the cause of this interesting phenomenon was found and are listed: (1) This phenomenon probably originates from the extremely high local rate of burning of the hydrogen-air mixture. (2) Accompaning the stronger combustion pressure vibration was an increase in engine vibration and noise with increase in NOx emission and higher piston temperature. (3) Longer ignition delay resulted in a steeper pressure-time diagram which resalted in a stronger combustion pressure vibration. (4) The phenomenon had negligible effect on engine performance. (5) The phenomenon can be prevented by premixing a ceratain quantity of hydrogen gas into the intake air stream. The result was a shortened ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Influence of Clearance Between Piston and Cylinder on Piston Friction

1988-10-01
881621
It is desired to minimize clearance between the piston and the cylinder to reduce noise and suppress vibration. Although significant effort has been made for this purpose, increased piston friction force and the occurrence of seizure still prevent the ideal clearance from being realized. In order to determine the lower limit of the piston clearance, it is crucial to clarify the following unknowns; which part of piston contributes to friction increase as the piston clearance is decreased, during which phase of the piston motion the friction increase occurs, and how the piston clearance affects lubrication phenomena. Measurements of piston friction force under operating conditions were made by applying the Floating Liner Method(1),(2)* to a single-cylinder test gasoline engine. The measurement revealed how the piston friction varied as the piston clearance decreased. Lateral motion of the piston was also measured.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Piston Lubrication in a Diesel Engine By Means of Cylinder Surface Roughness

2004-03-08
2004-01-0604
Aiming at the improvement in piston lubrication and the reduction of piston friction loss under this study, piston friction forces of cylinders with different surface roughness and treatment methods have been measured by means of a floating liner method, and the piston surface conditions have been also observed. As a result, it is found that the piston lubrication can be markedly improved by reducing the cylinder surface roughness. It is also verified that the deterioration in lubrication can be reduced even if some low viscosity oil is used, and the effect on the friction loss reduction becomes greater by reducing the piston surface roughness. On the other hand, it is found that many small vertical flaws are generated on the cylinder surface by reducing the surface roughness. In order to cope with this problem, etching and DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) coating have been tested as the surface treatments. As a result, it is confirmed that DLC coating is effective for the above.
Technical Paper

Part 1: Piston Friction and Noise Study of Three Different Piston Architectures for an Automotive Gasoline Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0427
The objective was to rank piston friction and noise for three piston architectures at three cold clearance conditions. Piston secondary motion was measured using four gap sensors mounted on each piston skirt to better understand the friction and noise results. One noticeable difference in friction performance from conventional designs was as engine speed increased the friction force during the expansion stroke decreased. This was accompanied by relatively small increases in friction force during the other strokes so Friction Mean Effective Pressure (FMEP) for the whole cycle was reduced. Taguchi's Design of Experiment method was used to analyze the variances in friction and noise.
Technical Paper

A Study of Decrease Oil Consumption for NSOR-Two-Ring Package Piston

1991-02-01
910435
Furuhama(1)* proposed the new two ring package consist of a pressure ring and a narrow single-rail oil ring (NSOR) in 1985. Number of studies(2) have been done for the purpose of reducing the oil consumption (OC) in this ring package. However, OC reduction problem has been still remaining to solve as only one serious problem of this ring package. The reasons of a larger OC in the new ring package than the conventional three ring has been hardly understood, considering the OC control ability on second ring in three ring package will not so large since the fact that the oil film thickness is thicker than that of the oil ring. In this study, the mechanism of OC increase in new ring package was found out at last, as a result, OC of new ring package piston was improved up to the same level of conventional three ring package piston.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Cylinder Bore Deformation During Actual Operating Engines

1991-02-01
910042
One of the phenomena accompanying the lightweight/compact/high power output feature of engines is the cylinder bore deformation, which may readily cause increased oil consumption, gas leakage, unusual wear, scuffing, etc.. The authors have had experiences that piston rings had generated contact failure during engine operation (1)*. Such deformation is generated as a combination of the static deformation due to head bolt tightening, crankshaft installation, etc., and the deformation by the operating factors; thermal load and combustion pressure. Countermeasure of design have been made for the former (2)*, and prediction of the deformation during actual operating have been tried using FEM analysis, etc. for the latter (3)*. Therefore, the accurate measurement result have been required strongly, for a long time. But it could not be realized in the past.
Technical Paper

Direct Heat Loss to Combustion Chamber Walls in a D.I. Diesel Engine-Development of Measurement Technique and Evaluation of Direct Heat Loss to Cylinder Liner Wall

2007-09-16
2007-24-0006
The purpose of this study is to clarify the state of heat loss to the cylinder liner of the tested engine of which piston and cylinder head were previously measured. The authors' group developed an original measurement technique of instantaneous surface temperature at the cylinder liner wall using thin-film thermocouples. The temperature was measured at 36 points in total. The instantaneous heat flux was calculated by heat transfer analysis using measurement results of the temperature at the wall. As a result, the heat loss ratio to all combustion chamber walls is evaluated except the intake and exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Low NOx Emission Automobile Liquid Hydrogen Engine by Means of Dual Mixture Formation

1993-03-01
930757
According to authors' previous research, high pressure hydrogen engines with direct injection right before TDC and spark ignition obtain high performance and eliminate almost. abnormal combustion. This study has clarified the mooted points in the flame propagation to adjacent jets and the control of the optimum spark timing and large NOx emissions even in leaner than excess air ratio of λ=2. Nitric oxides (NOx) is the only the pollutant in the exhaust gases emitted by hydrogen engines. It has been found that the NOx formation largely depends on the mixture formation method. In order to operate the engine in a small amount of NOx, an experimental study was carried out to investigate the reduction of NOx and the output power by using dual mixture formation method, external mixture formation and direct injection.
Technical Paper

Effects of Flame Motion and Temperature on Local Wall Heat Transfer in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine Simulating Diesel Combustion

1992-10-01
922208
Local heat flux from the flame to the combustion chamber wall, q̇, was measured the wall surfaces of a rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate diesel combustion. Temperature of the flame zone, T1, was calculated by a thermodynamic two-zone model using measured values of cylinder pressure and flame volume. A local heat transfer coefficient was proposed which is defined as q̇/(T1-Tw). Experiments showed that the local heat transfer coefficient depends slightly on the temperature difference, T1-Tw, but depends significantly on the velocity of the flame which contacts the wall surface.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Characteristics of Premixed Compression Ignition Combustions

2001-05-07
2001-01-1891
Thermodynamic characteristics of premixed compression ignition combustions were clarified quantitatively by heat balance estimation. Heat balance was calculated from temperature, mole fractions of intake and exhaust gases, mass and properties of fuels. Heat balance estimation was conducted for three types of combustion; a conventional diesel combustion, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion; fuel is provided and mixed with air in an intake pipe in this case, and an extremely early injection type PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion (PREDIC). The results show that EGR should be applied for premixed compression ignition combustion to complete combustion at lower load conditions and to control ignition timing at higher load conditions. With an application of EGR, both HCCI and PREDIC showed low heat loss characteristics at lower load conditions up to 1/2 load.
Technical Paper

A Study of Heat Rejection and Combustion Characteristics of a Low-temperature and Pre-mixed Combustion Concept Based on Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2792
There have been strong demands recently for reductions in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engines from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. A great deal of research is being done on new emission control technologies using direct-injection (DI) diesel engines that provide high thermal efficiency. This work includes dramatic improvements in the combustion process. The authors have developed a new combustion concept called Modulated Kinetics (MK), which reduces smoke and NOx levels simultaneously by reconciling low-temperature combustion with pre-mixed combustion [1, 2]. At present, research is under way on the second generation of MK combustion with the aim of improving emission performance further and achieving higher thermal efficiency [3]. Reducing heat rejection in the combustion chamber is effective in improving the thermal efficiency of DI diesel engines as well as that of MK combustion.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston and Piston Ring Designs on the Piston Friction Forces in Diesel Engines

1981-09-01
810977
How much reduction in piston friction loss can be achieved by the piston design? Piston friction force measurements have been carried out using the measuring method developed by the authors to obtain the effects of piston clearance, surface roughness, lubricant and ring size and contact pressure on the piston friction forces. A particular emphasis is placed on the study of effects of the piston rings by the experimental and theoretical analyses, since friction forces of piston rings accounted for 3/4 or more of the total piston friction force.
Technical Paper

Development of a Technique to Predict Oil Consumption with Consideration for Cylinder Deformation - Prediction of Ring Oil Film Thickness and Amount of Oil Passing Across Running Surface under Cylinder Deformation -

2003-03-03
2003-01-0982
Although various factors affecting oil consumption of an internal combustion engine can be considered, a technique to predict the amount of oil consumed within a cylinder that passes across a running surface of a ring was developed in this study. In order to predict the effect of cylinder deformation on oil consumption, a simple and easy technique to calculate the oil film thickness in deformed cylinder was proposed. For this technique, the piston ring was assumed to be a straight beam, and the beam bends with ring tension, gas pressure, and oil film pressure. From the calculated oil film thickness, amount of oil passing across the running surface of the TOP ring and into the combustion chamber was calculated. The calculated results were then compared to the oil film thickness of the ring and oil consumption measured during engine operation, and their validity was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Degree of Constant Volume and Cooling Loss in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3561
This study analyzes the factors influencing the thermal efficiency of a homogeneous charge spark-injection (SI) engine fuelled with hydrogen, focusing on the degree of constant volume and cooling loss. The cooling loss from the burning gas to the cylinder walls is quantitatively evaluated by analyzing the cylinder pressure diagram and exhaust gas composition. The degree of constant volume burning and constant volume cooling are also obtained by fitting the Wiebe function to the rate of heat release calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. A comparison of combustion and cooling characteristics of hydrogen and methane combustion reveals that cooling loss in hydrogen combustion is higher than that of methane combustion due to the short quenching distance and rapid burning velocity during hydrogen combustion. It is also suggested that the high cooling loss observed during hydrogen combustion reduces thermal efficiency.
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