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Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 – 2009

2009-07-12
2009-01-2415
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

2009-07-12
2009-01-2457
The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. The CEV is being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth to the International Space Station and then later, from the Earth to the Moon . This year, the vehicle continued to go through design refinements to reduce weight, meet requirements, and operate reliably while preparing for Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2009. The design of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system, which includes the life support and active thermal control systems, is progressing through the design stage. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2008 to April 2009.
Technical Paper

Development of a Prototype Water Pump for Future Space Suit Applications

2009-07-12
2009-01-2450
NASA's next generation of space suit systems will place new demands on the pump used to circulate cooling water through the life support system and the crew's liquid cooling garment. Long duration missions and frequent EVA require increased durability and reliability; limited resupply mass requirements demand compatibility with recycled water, and changing system design concepts demand increased tolerance for dissolved and free gas and the ability to operate over a broader range of flow rates and discharge pressure conditions. This paper describes the development of a positive displacement prototype pump to meet these needs. A gerotor based design has been adapted to meet pump performance, gas tolerance, and durability requirements while providing a small, lightweight pump assembly. This design has been detailed and implemented using materials selected to address anticipated water quality and mission needs as a prototype unit for testing in NASA laboratories.
Technical Paper

Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

2009-07-12
2009-01-2569
A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2004 - 2005

2005-07-11
2005-01-2777
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2004 and February 2005. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Effect of Local Hand Thermal Insulation on Total and Local Comfort Under Different Levels of Body Heat Deficit

2005-07-11
2005-01-2977
Introduction: There are contradictory opinions regarding the contribution of local hand thermal insulation to support local and total comfort during extravehicular activity (EVA). Instead of a local correction by means of thermal insulation on the periphery of the body to prevent heat dissipation, it may be optimal to prevent heat dissipation from the body core. To examine such a concept, the effects of different insulation levels on the left and right hands on the heat flux and temperature mosaic on the hands was measured. These variables were assessed in relation to the level of heat deficit forming in the core organs and tissues. Methods: Six subjects (4 males, 2 females) were donned in a liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) that totally covered the body surface except for the face. Participants wore the Phase VI space gloves including the entire micrometeoroid garment (TMG) on the left hand, and the glove without the TMG on the right hand.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Boundary Manikins: A Principal Component Analysis

2008-06-17
2008-01-1879
When designing any human-system interface, it is critical to provide realistic anthropometry to properly represent how a person fits within a given space. This study aimed to identify a minimum number of ‘boundary manikins’ or representative models of subjects' anthropometry from a target population, which would realistically represent the population. The boundary manikin anthropometry was derived using, Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA is a statistical approach to reduce a multi-dimensional dataset using eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The measurements used in the PCA were identified as those measurements critical for space suit and cockpit design. The PCA yielded a total of 26 manikins per gender, as well as their anthropometry from the target population. Reduction techniques were implemented to reduce this number further with a final result of 20 female and 22 male subjects.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Changes for Increasing the ISS Crew Size to Six Crew Members and for Shuttle Retirement

2008-06-29
2008-01-2178
With the long anticipated change to increase the International Space Station (ISS) crew size from three to six crew members and the retirement of the Space Shuttle, changes are in work to the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System to support the increased on-orbit crew size and their continued operations. The Space Shuttle had provided high pressure oxygen resupply, high pressure nitrogen resupply, water resupply, atmosphere gaseous make up when the Space Shuttle is docked to ISS, and logistic cargo supply/return capability to ISS. Without the Space Shuttle additional changes need to be made to the ISS ECLS System to support the six crew members post Assembly Complete (AC). This will be in addition to the changes that were needed to support doubling the nominal ISS crew size from three to six crew members.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Water Recovery and Management Subsystems

2008-06-29
2008-01-2183
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS WRM subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

2008-06-29
2008-01-2182
The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMAs 1 and 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodologies utilized for the PMAs.
Technical Paper

Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

2008-06-29
2008-01-2086
Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2007 - 2008

2008-06-29
2008-01-2131
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2007 and February 2008. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2002 – 2003

2003-07-07
2003-01-2589
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2002 and March 2003. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements with Node 3 just completing its final design review so that it can proceed towards manufacturing and the continued manufacturing of the regenerative ECLS equipment that will be integrated into Node 3.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System On-Orbit Station Development Test Objective Status

2003-07-07
2003-01-2593
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the ECLS System On-Orbit Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) status from the start of assembly until the end of February 2003.
Technical Paper

The Food System for the International Space Station: The First Five Increments

2003-07-07
2003-01-2426
The International Space Station (ISS) has been continuously crewed for more than 2 years. One of the major systems for crew health, performance and psychological support is the food system. This paper documents the mechanics of implementation for the ISS food system, with emphasis on the U.S. portion of that system, and also provides some performance feedback received from the first 5 increment crews. Menu composition and planning, food stowage, on orbit preparation, shipments, and inventory control are also described.
Technical Paper

The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project Phase III 90-day Test: The Crew Perspective

1998-07-13
981702
The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) Phase III test examined the use of biological and physicochemical life support technologies for the recovery of potable water from waste water, the regeneration of breathable air, and the maintenance of a shirt-sleeve environment for a crew of four persons for 91 days. This represents the longest duration ground-test of life support systems with humans performed in the United States. This paper will describe the test from the inside viewpoint, concentrating on three major areas: maintenance and repair of life support elements, the scientific projects performed primarily in support of the International Space Station, and numerous activities in the areas of public affairs and education outreach.
Technical Paper

Early Human Testing of Advanced Life Support Systems, Phase I

1995-07-01
951490
The Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) at NASA's Johnson Space Center under the support of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications is conducting the Early Human Testing Initiave (EHTI) project with the goal of validating regenerative life support technologies through a series of integrated tests with human subjects. The EHTI project is organized into three distinct phases, each with progressively more complex integration of biological and physicochemical (P/C) life support technologies. The goal of Phase I is to conduct a 15-day one-person test to verify the performance of an air revitalization system based on higher plants with physicochemical systems as complements and backups. The test will be performed in CTSD's Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), a tightly closed controlled-environment test chamber configured with approximately 11 m2 of area for plant growth.
Technical Paper

Early Human Testing of Advanced Life Support Systems, Phase II and III

1995-07-01
951491
The Crew and Thermal Systems Division at NASA Johnson Space Center under the sponsorship of NASA Headquarters Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications is conducting the Early Human Testing (EHT) project. The goal of the multi-year EHT project is to provide NASA with a ground-based test bed facility used to demonstrate the feasibility of regenerative life support technologies involving both physicochemical and biological processes to sustain human life for extended periods in a closed environment. The EHT project is organized into three distinct phases to provide progressively more complex integration of biological and physicochemical life support systems. While Phase I focuses on biological life support, Phase II is an intermediate testing program scheduled to support 4 persons for 15 days in a closed environment utilizing physicochemical life support systems.
Technical Paper

A Helmet Mounted Display Demonstration unit for a Space Station Application

1989-07-01
891583
An advanced development helmet mounted display (HMD) was designed and fabricated under NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC) contract, NAS 9-17543, by Hamilton Standard Division of United Technologies, Windsor Locks, CT. The work was initiated in December 1985 and culminated in June 1988 with the delivery of an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) HMD demonstration unit as an alternative to the current low-resolution, chest-mounted display and cuff-mounted checklists. Important design goals achieved with this HMD include the use of transmissive liquid crystal display (LCD) image sources with fairly high resolution (i.e., text, graphics, and video compatible), binocular viewing with total image overlap, virtual image projection, low profile packaging, low power design, and demonstration of voice control of the HMD data.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2005 - 2006

2006-07-17
2006-01-2055
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2005 and February 2006. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
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