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Technical Paper

Airborne Dust in Space Vehicles and Habitats

2006-07-17
2006-01-2152
Airborne dust, suspended inside a space vehicle or in future celestial habitats, can present a serious threat to crew health if it is not controlled. During some Apollo missions to the moon, lunar dust brought inside the capsule caused eye irritation and breathing difficulty to the crew when they launched from the moon and reacquired “microgravity.” During Shuttle flights reactive and toxic dusts such as lithium hydroxide have created a risk to crew health, and fine particles from combustion events can be especially worrisome. Under nominal spaceflight conditions, airborne dusts and particles tend to be larger than on earth because of the absence of gravity settling. Aboard the ISS, dusts are effectively managed by high efficiency filters, although floating dust in newly-arrived modules can be a nuisance.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2005 - 2006

2006-07-17
2006-01-2055
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2005 and February 2006. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2004 - 2005

2005-07-11
2005-01-2777
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2004 and February 2005. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 – 2009

2009-07-12
2009-01-2415
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

2009-07-12
2009-01-2569
A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks.
Technical Paper

Development of a Prototype Water Pump for Future Space Suit Applications

2009-07-12
2009-01-2450
NASA's next generation of space suit systems will place new demands on the pump used to circulate cooling water through the life support system and the crew's liquid cooling garment. Long duration missions and frequent EVA require increased durability and reliability; limited resupply mass requirements demand compatibility with recycled water, and changing system design concepts demand increased tolerance for dissolved and free gas and the ability to operate over a broader range of flow rates and discharge pressure conditions. This paper describes the development of a positive displacement prototype pump to meet these needs. A gerotor based design has been adapted to meet pump performance, gas tolerance, and durability requirements while providing a small, lightweight pump assembly. This design has been detailed and implemented using materials selected to address anticipated water quality and mission needs as a prototype unit for testing in NASA laboratories.
Technical Paper

Effect of Local Hand Thermal Insulation on Total and Local Comfort Under Different Levels of Body Heat Deficit

2005-07-11
2005-01-2977
Introduction: There are contradictory opinions regarding the contribution of local hand thermal insulation to support local and total comfort during extravehicular activity (EVA). Instead of a local correction by means of thermal insulation on the periphery of the body to prevent heat dissipation, it may be optimal to prevent heat dissipation from the body core. To examine such a concept, the effects of different insulation levels on the left and right hands on the heat flux and temperature mosaic on the hands was measured. These variables were assessed in relation to the level of heat deficit forming in the core organs and tissues. Methods: Six subjects (4 males, 2 females) were donned in a liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) that totally covered the body surface except for the face. Participants wore the Phase VI space gloves including the entire micrometeoroid garment (TMG) on the left hand, and the glove without the TMG on the right hand.
Journal Article

Lessons Learned from the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Subsystem

2008-06-29
2008-01-2008
The International Space Station (ISS) has served as an excellent test bed for the implementation and integration of several life support systems, and has offered many lessons that can be applied to future vehicles and program. This paper focuses on those lessons learned within the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Water Subsystem, which have dictated on-orbit system performance and forced many operational controls. These include lessons on the need for precise documentation and testing, pros and cons of different types of storage containers, and the need for designing systems to have accessibility and flexibility. This paper describes the issues encountered on ISS and suggests solutions for future systems in the form of recommendations and questions posed to the future designers.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2007 - 2008

2008-06-29
2008-01-2131
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2007 and February 2008. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

2008-06-29
2008-01-2086
Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Water Recovery and Management Subsystems

2008-06-29
2008-01-2183
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS WRM subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

2008-06-29
2008-01-2182
The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMAs 1 and 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodologies utilized for the PMAs.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Changes for Increasing the ISS Crew Size to Six Crew Members and for Shuttle Retirement

2008-06-29
2008-01-2178
With the long anticipated change to increase the International Space Station (ISS) crew size from three to six crew members and the retirement of the Space Shuttle, changes are in work to the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System to support the increased on-orbit crew size and their continued operations. The Space Shuttle had provided high pressure oxygen resupply, high pressure nitrogen resupply, water resupply, atmosphere gaseous make up when the Space Shuttle is docked to ISS, and logistic cargo supply/return capability to ISS. Without the Space Shuttle additional changes need to be made to the ISS ECLS System to support the six crew members post Assembly Complete (AC). This will be in addition to the changes that were needed to support doubling the nominal ISS crew size from three to six crew members.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Boundary Manikins: A Principal Component Analysis

2008-06-17
2008-01-1879
When designing any human-system interface, it is critical to provide realistic anthropometry to properly represent how a person fits within a given space. This study aimed to identify a minimum number of ‘boundary manikins’ or representative models of subjects' anthropometry from a target population, which would realistically represent the population. The boundary manikin anthropometry was derived using, Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA is a statistical approach to reduce a multi-dimensional dataset using eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The measurements used in the PCA were identified as those measurements critical for space suit and cockpit design. The PCA yielded a total of 26 manikins per gender, as well as their anthropometry from the target population. Reduction techniques were implemented to reduce this number further with a final result of 20 female and 22 male subjects.
Technical Paper

Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System for Core Complete Modules

2004-07-19
2004-01-2386
The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the current and by the addition of future U.S.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2003 - 2004

2004-07-19
2004-01-2382
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2003 and March 2004. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control And Life Support System Status: 2001-2002

2002-07-15
2002-01-2494
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between May 2001 and April 2002. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with Phase 2 completion accomplished during this period. Work continued on the Phase 3 elements with Node 3 proceeding toward a final design review and the regenerative ECLS equipment proceeding into manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Updating the Tools Used to Estimate Space Radiation Exposures for Operations: Codes, Models, and Interfaces

2002-07-15
2002-01-2457
In order to estimate the exposure to a crew in space, there are three essential steps to be performed: first, the ambient radiation environment at the vehicle must be characterized; second, the mass distribution properties of the vehicle, including the crewmembers themselves must be developed, and third a model of the interactions of space radiations with matter must be employed in order to characterize the radiation field at the dose point of interest. The Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at the NASA, Johnson Space Center carries the primary responsibility for the operational radiation protection support function associated with manned space flight. In order to provide support during the various planning, execution, and analysis/recording phase activities associated with a given mission, tools have been developed to allow rapid, repeatable calculations of exposure on orbit.
Technical Paper

The Food System for the International Space Station: The First Five Increments

2003-07-07
2003-01-2426
The International Space Station (ISS) has been continuously crewed for more than 2 years. One of the major systems for crew health, performance and psychological support is the food system. This paper documents the mechanics of implementation for the ISS food system, with emphasis on the U.S. portion of that system, and also provides some performance feedback received from the first 5 increment crews. Menu composition and planning, food stowage, on orbit preparation, shipments, and inventory control are also described.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2002 – 2003

2003-07-07
2003-01-2589
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2002 and March 2003. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements with Node 3 just completing its final design review so that it can proceed towards manufacturing and the continued manufacturing of the regenerative ECLS equipment that will be integrated into Node 3.
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