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Technical Paper

Early Results of an Integrated Water Recovery System Test

2001-07-09
2001-01-2210
The work presented in this paper summarizes the early results of an integrated advanced water recovery system test conducted by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system design and the results of the first two months of operation are presented. The overall objective of this test is to demonstrate the capability of an integrated advanced water recovery system to produce potable quality water for at least six months. Each subsystem is designed for operation in microgravity. The primary treatment system consists of a biological system for organic carbon and ammonia removal. Dissolved solids are removed by reverse osmosis and air evaporation systems. Finally, ion exchange technology in combination with photolysis or photocatalysis is used for polishing of the effluent water stream. The wastewater stream consists of urine and urine flush water, hygiene wastewater and a simulated humidity condensate.
Technical Paper

Advanced Regenerable CoD2 Removal Technologies Applicable to Future Emus

1996-07-01
961484
The NASA Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) uses a non-regenerable absorbent to remove CO2 from an astronaut's breathing loop. A savings in launch weight, storage volume and life cycle cost may be achieved by incorporating a regenerable CO2 removal system into the EMU. This paper will discuss regenerable CO2 sorbents and their impact on the life support system of an EMU. The systems evaluated will be judged on their technical maturity, impact to the EMU, and impacts to space station and shuttle operation
Technical Paper

Control of Air Revitalization Using Plants: Results of the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase I Test

1996-07-01
961522
The Early Human Testing Initiative (EHTI) Phase I Human Test, performed by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at Johnson Space Center, demonstrated the ability of a crop of wheat to provide air revitalization for a human test subject for a 15-day period. The test demonstrated three different methods for control of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations for the human/plant system and obtained data on trace contaminants generated by both the human and plants during the test and their effects on each other. The crop was planted in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) on July 24, 1995 and the test subject entered the adjoining airlock on day 17 of the wheat's growth cycle. The test subject stayed in the chamber for a total of 15 days, 1 hour and 20 minutes. Air was mixed between the plant chamber and airlock to provide oxygen to the test subject and carbon dioxide to the plants by an interchamber ventilation system.
Technical Paper

A Total Organic Carbon Analyzer for Space Potable Water Systems

1996-07-01
961570
A Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer has been developed for a Life Sciences Risk Mitigation Flight Experiment to be conducted on Spacehab and the Russian space station, Mir. Initial launch is scheduled for December 1996 (flight STS-81). The analyzer will be tested on the Orbiter in the Spacehab module, including when the Orbiter is docked at the Mir space station. The analyzer is scheduled to be launched again in May 1997 (STS-84) when it will be transferred to Mir. During both flights the analyzer will measure the quality of recycled and ground-supplied potable water on the space station. Samples will be archived for later return to the ground, where they will be analyzed for comparison to in-flight results. Water test samples of known composition, brought up with the analyzer, also will be used to test its performance in microgravity. Ground-based analyses of duplicates of those test samples will be conducted concurrently with the in-flight analyses.
Technical Paper

Operational Psychological Issues for Mars and other Exploration Missions

1997-07-01
972290
Long duration NASA-Mir program missions, and the planned International Space Station missions, have given impetus for NASA to implement an operational program of psychological preparation, monitoring, and support for its crews. For exploration missions measured in years, the importance of psychological issues increases exponentially beyond what is currently done. Psychologists' role should begin during the vehicle design and crew selection phases. Extensive preflight preparation must focus on individual and team adaptation, and leadership. Factors such as lack of resupply options and communication delays will alter in-flight monitoring and support capabilities, and require a more self-sufficient crew. Involvement in postflight recovery will also be necessry to ensure appropriate reintegration to the family and job.
Technical Paper

Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex: Facility Description and Testing Objectives

1997-07-01
972342
As a key component in its ground test bed capability, NASA's Advanced Life Support Program has been developing a large-scale advanced life support facility capable of supporting long-duration testing of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. This facility, the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), is currently under development at the Johnson Space Center. The BIO-Plex is comprised of a set of interconnected test chambers with a sealed internal environment capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The life support systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical technologies and will perform all required air revitalization, water recovery, biomass production, food processing, solid waste processing, thermal management, and integrated command and control functions.
Technical Paper

Performance of the Water Recovery System During Phase II of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

1997-07-01
972417
The recovery of potable water from waste water produced by humans in regenerative life support systems is essential for success of long-duration space missions. The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) Phase II test was performed to validate candidate technologies to support these missions. The test was conducted in the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Discussed in this paper are the water recovery system (WRS) results of this test. A crew of 4-persons participated in the test and lived in the LSSIF chamber for a duration of 30-days from June 12 to July 12, 1996. The crew had accommodations for personal hygiene, the air was regenerated for reuse, and the waste water was processed to potable and hygiene quality for reuse by the crew during this period. The waste water consisted of shower, laundry, handwash, urine and humidity condensate.
Technical Paper

Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project, Phase II: Human Factors and Crew Interactions

1997-07-01
972415
Phase II of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project was conducted in June and July of 1996 at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The primary objective for Phase II was to develop and test an integrated human life support system capable of sustaining a crew of four for 30 days in a closed chamber. The crew was continuously present inside a chamber throughout the 30-day test. The objective of this paper is to describe crew interactions and human factors for the test. Crew preparations for the test included training and familiarization of chamber systems and accommodations, and medical and psychological evaluations. During the test, crew members provided metabolic loads for the life support systems, performed maintenance on chamber systems, and evaluated human factors inside the chamber. Overall, the four crew members found the chamber to be comfortable for the 30-day test.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Oxygen Production on the Moon and Mars

1997-07-01
972498
Scientists and engineers at NASA are currently developing flight instruments which will demonstrate oxygen production on the Moon and Mars. REGA will extract oxygen from the lunar regolith, measure implanted solar wind and indigenous gases, and monitor the lunar atmosphere. MIP will demonstrate oxygen production on Mars, along with key supporting technologies including filtration, atmospheric acquisition and compression, thermal management, solar cell performance, and dust removal.
Technical Paper

Proof of Concept High Lift Heat Pump for a Lunar Base

1998-07-13
981683
When a permanent human outpost is established on the Moon, various methods may be used to reject the heat generated by the base. One proposed concept is the use of a heat pump operating with a vertical, flow-through thermal radiator mounted on a Space Station type habitation module [1]. Since the temperature of the lunar surface varies over the day, the vertical radiator sink temperatures can reach much higher levels than the comfort and even survivability requirements of a habitation module. A high temperature lift heat pump will not only maintain a comfortable habitation module temperature, but will also decrease the size of the radiators needed to reject the waste heat. Thus, the heat pump will also decrease the mass of the entire thermal system. Engineers at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) have tested a High Lift Heat Pump design and are developing the next generation heat pump based on information and experience gained from this testing.
Technical Paper

Energy Analysis of an Enclosed, Long-Duration Planetary Habitat Test-Bed

1998-07-13
981711
An energy balance was performed on the life support equipment used during the Phase III, 90-day, human Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project at the Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the analysis was to account for all the energy sources, uses, and losses in the test-bed. Knowledge from this task may allow more energy efficient designs to be developed. Control volumes were defined and energy balance equations were generated for major systems. The analyses succeeded in balancing the energy fairly well for several systems. Further, the data showed that inefficiencies existed, and means of design optimization were subsequently suggested.
Technical Paper

Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project Phase III Water Recovery System Operation and Results

1998-07-13
981707
An integrated water recovery system was operated for 91 days in support of the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) Phase III test. The system combined both biological and physical-chemical processes to treat a combined wastewater stream consisting of waste hygiene water, urine, and humidity condensate. Biological processes were used for primary degradation of organic material as well as for nitrification of ammonium in the wastewater. Physical-chemical systems removed inorganic salts from the water and provided post-treatment. The integrated system provided potable water to the crew throughout the test. This paper describes the water recovery system and reviews the performance of the system during the test.
Technical Paper

Design of an Electrochemical Tubulated Bipolar Membrane Breadboard System for the Treatment of Spacecraft Waste Water

1998-07-13
981755
The removal of dissolved ions from waste water is essential for water repurification on long-term human space missions. Lynntech, Inc., has demonstrated a novel electrochemically driven purification method using tubulated bipolar ion exchange membranes for the separation of dissolved inorganic impurities as well as charged organic species from waste water. Generally, electrochemical separation methods have limited applications since they can only be applied to the purification of water that has a sufficiently high dissolved ion content to make the water conductive. The novel tubulated bipolar membranes composed of bilayers of oppositely charged ionically conducting polymers can be used to overcome this limitation. This paper deals with the scaling-up of such a device to increase the throughput to process about 100 liters of waste water per day. This is achieved by using stacks of tubulated bipolar membranes.
Technical Paper

Manned Space Exploration and Life Support - Strategies, Milestones, and Limitations

1995-07-01
951532
A rationale will be presented,as to why a lunar base should be the next logical step of a future scenario for manned space flight preceding a flight to Mars. In this respect, the lunar base and the Mars flight examples and their life support systems will be addressed. An overview of past experiences, especially Apollo, and the current knowledge is given concerning both lunar missions and life support systems. Also, critical areas of mission design and preparation, like the necessity of precursor missions, the potential of resource utilization, radiation shielding, and life support system evolution, are addressed. This paper decribes a general development scenario for future manned missions to the Moon and Mars and why a “dress rehearsal” of a mission to Mars in the Earth-Moon-system will be necessary, and what lessons can be learned from the development of a lunar base for missions to Mars.
Technical Paper

NASA's Approach to Integrated System Testing of Regenerative Life Support Systems

1995-07-01
951494
Integrating physicochemical and biological technologies into a regenerative life support system is a complex technical challenge. NASA recognizes that the depth and breadth of the challenge warrants a comprehensive investigation. NASA is implementing several ground-based projects to look at different systems integration issues. The combined efforts of these activities will enable NASA to develop regenerative life support systems for human exploration of the solar system in the 21st century. This paper provides an overview of NASA's overall approach to ground testing of integrated regenerative life support systems.
Technical Paper

Design of an Ultrafiltration/Reverse Osmosis Prototype Subsystem for the Treatment of Spacecraft Wastewaters

1995-07-01
951738
Long duration missions in space will require regenerative processes to recover water for crew reuse. Membrane processes are attractive as a primary processor in water recovery systems (WRS) because of their design simplicity, low specific energy requirements, small size, and high water recovery. However, fouling has historically been regarded as a disadvantage of membrane-based processes. This fouling is often caused by micelle buildup on the membrane surface by high-molecular-weight organics (e.g., from soaps and laundry detergents). This paper describes a two-stage fouling-resistant ultrafiltration (UF)/reverse osmosis (RO) prototype subsystem, which was designed and constructed for a WRS in the Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF) at NASA Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC). The first stage of the subsystem is a tube-side-feed hollow-fiber UF module that removes contaminants that tend to foul spiral-wound modules.
Technical Paper

Testing of an Integrated Air Revitalization System

1995-07-01
951661
Long-duration missions in space will require regenerative air revitalization processes. Human testing of these regenerative processes is necessary to provide focus to the system development process and to provide realistic metabolic and hygiene inputs. To this end, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC), under the sponsorship of NASA Headquarters Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, is implementing an Early Human Testing (EHT) Project. As part of this project, an integrated physicochemical Air Revitalization System (ARS) is being developed and tested in JSC's Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF). The components of the ARS include a Four-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) Subsystem for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal, a Sabatier CO2 Reduction Subsystem (CRS), and a Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE)™ Oxygen Generation Subsystem (OGS). A Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem (TCCS) will be incorporated at a later date.
Technical Paper

Development, Performance and Flight Test Results of the Cabin Air Cleaner (CAC) for the Shuttle Orbiter

1994-06-01
941253
Debris and particulate filtration problems have been persistent during flights on the Space Shuttle Orbiter since STS-6. Analysis of the Orbiter Environmental and Life Support System (ECLSS) indicated that both the volumetric flows and velocities were essentially designed for ventilation, heat removal, and gas blending with minimal consideration for debris removal. The baseline Orbiter filtration system consisted of a single 300 micron filter at the inlet of the cabin fan primarily to protect the cabin fan hardware. This filter was increased to 70 microns and additional filters added after some hardware failures occurred. However, these changes did not clean the environment as expected. An evaluation of the size and type of debris in the cabin air determined that the debris is able to “short-circuit” the cabin filtration system and remains in the cabin air causing the crew discomfort.
Technical Paper

Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System-Flight Experience

1996-07-01
961334
The Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) functioned successfully on 76 Shuttle missions to date. The ECLSS consists of six subsystems which provide both a habitable environment for the crew and active vehicle thermal control. The Orbiter ECLSS design is reviewed in this paper and the operational flight experience is summarized. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedural changes implemented to resolve the problems. The design and flight experience is summarized for recent enhancements to the ECLSS to meet extended duration missions and to accommodate visits to the Mir Space Station and to the International Space Station.
Technical Paper

The Advanced Life Support Human-Rated Test Facility: Testbed Development and Testing to Understand Evolution to Regenerative Life Support

1996-07-01
961592
As part of its integrated system test bed capability, NASA's Advanced Life Support Program has undertaken the development of a large-scale advanced life support facility capable of supporting long-duration testing of integrated, regenerative biological and physicochemical life support systems. This facility--the Advanced Life Support Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF) is currently being built at the Johnson Space Center. The HRTF is comprised of a series of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment capable of supporting a test crew of four for periods exceeding one year. The life support system will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform air revitalization, water recovery, food production, solid waste processing, thermal management, and integrated command and control functions. Currently, a portion of this multichamber facility has been constructed and is being outfitted with basic utilities and infrastructure.
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