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Technical Paper

The Effect of Runway Surface and Braking on Shuttle Orbiter Main Gear Tire Wear

In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented.
Technical Paper

Flow Rate and Trajectory of Water Spray Produced by an Aircraft Tire

One of the risks associated with wet runway aircraft operation is the ingestion of water spray produced by an aircraft's tires into its engines. This problem can be especially dangerous at or near rotation speed on the takeoff roll. An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Hydrodynamics Research Facility to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft nose tire operating on a flooded runway. The effects of various parameters on the spray patterns including distance aft of nosewheel, speed, load, and water depth were evaluated. Variations in the spray pattern caused by the airflow about primary structure such as the fuselage and wing are discussed. A discussion of events in and near the tire footprint concerning spray generation is included.
Technical Paper

Tire and Runway Surface Research

The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.
Technical Paper

Cornering and Wear Behavior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Gear Tire

One of the factors needed to describe the handling characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the landing rollout is the response of the vehicle's tires to variations in load and yaw angle. An experimental investigation of the cornering characteristics of the Orbiter main gear tires was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. This investigation compliments earlier work done to define the Orbiter nose tire cornering characteristics. In the investigation, the effects of load and yaw angle were evaluated by measuring parameters such as side load and drag load, and obtaining measurements of aligning torque. Because the tire must operate on an extremely rough runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), tests were also conducted to describe the wear behavior of the tire under various conditions on a simulated KSC runway surface. Mathematical models for both the cornering and the wear behavior are discussed.
Technical Paper

New Design and Operating Techniques for Improved Terminal Area Compatibility*

Current aircraft operating problems that must be alleviated for future high-density terminal areas are safety, dependence on weather, congestion, energy conservation, noise, and atmospheric pollution. The MLS under development by FAA provides increased capabilities over the current ILS. It is, however, necessary and urgent to develop the airborne system's capability to take maximum advantage of the MLS capabilities in order to solve the terminal area problems previously mentioned. A major limiting factor in longitudinal spacing for capacity increase is the trailing vortex hazard. Promising methods for causing early dissipation of the vortices are being explored. Also, flight procedures for avoiding the hazard will be explored.
Technical Paper

Elements Affecting Runway Traction

The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Runway traction is so affected by the interaction of these elements that it becomes an impossible task to discuss the effects of each element individually. For this reason, this paper discusses runway traction under the general headings of dry, wet and flooded, and snow and ice conditions. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.
Technical Paper

Review of NASA Antiskid Braking Research

NASA antiskid braking system research programs are reviewed. These programs include experimental studies of four antiskid systems on the Langley Landing Loads Track, flight tests with a DC-9 airplane, and computer simulation studies. Results from these research efforts include identification of factors contributing to degraded antiskid performance under adverse weather conditions, tire tread temperature measurements during antiskid braking on dry runway surfaces, and an assessment of the accuracy of various brake pressure-torque computer models. This information should lead to the development of better antiskid systems in the future.
Technical Paper

The Generation of Tire Cornering Forces in Aircraft with a Free-Swiveling Nose Gear

Various conditions can cause an aircraft to assume a roll or tilt angle on the runway, causing the nose tire(s) to produce significant uncommanded cornering forces if the nose gear is free to swivel. An experimental investigation was conducted using a unique towing system to measure the cornering forces generated by a tilted aircraft tire. The effects of various parameters on these cornering forces including tilt angle, trail, rake angle, tire inflation pressure, vertical load, and twin-tire configuration were evaluated. Corotating twin-tires produced the most severe cornering forces due to tilt angle. A discussion of certain design and operational considerations is included.