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Technical Paper

New Particulate Filter Concept to Reduce Particle Number Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0814
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines achieve better fuel economy but have the drawback of increased Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. As known from diesel engine applications particulate filters are an effective PM reduction device which is expected to be effective for reduction of particulates emitted by GDI engines as well. For this investigation new filter concepts especially designed for GDI applications are proposed. Filtration efficiency, pressure drop and regeneration performance were verified by cold flow bench and engine and chassis dynamometer testing. The experimental data were used to discuss the validity of these new filter design concepts.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0843
Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.
Technical Paper

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

2015-09-01
2015-01-2018
Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Hydrothermally Aged Vanadia SCR on High-Porosity Substrate

2016-10-17
2016-01-2320
Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is adapted for a variety of applications to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust. The most commonly used catalyst for SCR in established markets is Cu-Zeolite (CuZ) due to excellent NOx conversion and thermal durability. However, most applications in emerging markets and certain applications in established markets utilize vanadia SCR. The operating temperature is typically maintained below 550°C to avoid vanadium sublimation due to active regeneration of the diesel particulate filter (DPF), or some OEMs may eliminate the DPF because they can achieve particulate matter (PM) standard with engine tuning. Further improvement of vanadia SCR durability and NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required in consideration of future emission standards.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emission Reduction for GDI Engines with Gasoline Particulate Filters

2017-10-08
2017-01-2378
In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 despite keeping high performance engines, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology usually combined with charged aspiration is expanding in the automotive industry. While providing more efficient powertrains to reduce fuel consumption one side effect of GDI is the increased particle formation during the combustion process. For the first time for GDI from September 2014 there is a Particle Number (PN) limit in EU of 6x10 sup 12 #/km, which will be further reduced by one order of magnitude to 6x10 sup 11 #/km effective from September 2017 to be the same level as applied to Diesel engines. In addition to the PN limit of the certification cycle NEDC further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) including portable PN measurements are under discussion by the European Commission. RDE test procedure requires stable and low emissions in a wide range of engine operations and durable over a distance of 160 000 km.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Concepts: Part 2

2006-04-03
2006-01-0032
The development of diesel powered passenger cars is driven by the enhanced emission legislation. To fulfill the future emission limits there is a need for advanced aftertreatment devices. A comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the improvement of the DOC as one part of these systems, concerning high HC/CO conversion rates, low temperature light-off behaviour and high temperature aging stability, respectively. The first part of this study was published in [1]. Further evaluations using a high temperature DPF aging were carried out for the introduced systems. Again the substrate geometry and the catalytic coating were varied. The results from engine as well as vehicle tests show advantages in a highly systematic context by changing either geometrical or chemical factors. These results enable further improvement for the design of the exhaust system to pass the demanding emission legislation for high performance diesel powered passenger cars.
Technical Paper

The Study for Structural Design of the Segmented SiC-DPF

2006-04-03
2006-01-1527
The application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF's) is expanding in the European, Japanese and US markets to comply with the tighter PM regulations. SiC DPF's, featuring greater robustness, have been applied extensively to passenger cars and are expanding into larger sizes for Light Duty Trucks applications. The SiC-DPF has higher mechanical strength when compared to other materials, such as Cordierite. However, SiC's thermal expansion ratio is greater. Therefore, the SiC-DPF is designed with 35 X 35mm segments and cement bonded construction, both of which function to relieve thermal stress. The appearance of the SiC-DPF with the segment design is shown in Figure 1. In this paper, the thermal stress mechanism of the segmented joint during soot regeneration and the influence of the cement properties on the thermal shock resistance was investigated by using the soot regeneration model and thermal stress analysis in addition to the engine test.
Technical Paper

Filtration Behavior of Diesel Particulate Filters (2)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0923
Due to its better fuel efficiency and low CO2 emissions, the number of diesel engine vehicles is increasing worldwide. Since they have high Particulate Matter (PM) emissions, tighter emission regulations will be enforced in Europe, the US, and Japan over the coming years. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) has made it possible to meet the tighter regulations and Silicon Carbide and Cordierite DPF's have been applied to various vehicles from passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks. However, it has been reported that nano-size PM has a harmful effect on human health. Therefore, it is desirable that PM regulations should be tightened. This paper will describe the influence of the DPF material characteristics on PM filtration efficiency and emissions levels, in addition to pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Filtration Behavior of Diesel Particulate Filters (1)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0921
This paper is Part-1 of two papers discussing the filtration behavior of diesel particulate filters. Results of the fundamental study are presented in Part-1, and test results for real size DPFs are reported in the supplement, Part-2. In this paper, a fundamental experimental study was performed on the effect of pore size and pore size distribution on the PM filtration efficiency of the ceramic, wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Small round plates of various average mean pore sizes (4.6, 9.4, 11.7, 17.7 micro-meters) with a narrow pore size distribution were manufactured for the tests. During the DPF filtration efficiency tests, ZnCl2 particles in the range of 10 nm to 500 nm were used instead of PM from actual diesel engine exhaust. ZnCl2 particles were made using an infrared furnace and separated into monodisperse particles by DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer).
Technical Paper

Reaction and Diffusion Phenomena in Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters

2004-03-08
2004-01-0696
The objective of this study is to explain the physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the operation of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter. The study emphasizes on the coupling between reaction and diffusion phenomena (with emphasis on NO2 “back-diffusion”), based on modeling and experimental data obtained on the engine dynamometer. The study is facilitated by a novel multi-dimensional mathematical model able to predict both reaction and diffusion phenomena in the filter channels and through the soot layer and wall. The model is thus able to predict the species concentration gradients in the inlet/outlet channels, in the soot layer and wall, taking into account the effect of NO2 back diffusion. The model is validated versus engine dyno measurements. Two sets of measurements are employed corresponding to low-temperature “controlled” regenerations as well as high-temperature “uncontrolled” conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Experimental Study of Uncontrolled Regenerations in SiC Filters with Fuel Borne Catalyst

2004-03-08
2004-01-0697
The objective of this paper is to study the parameters affecting the evolution of “uncontrolled” regeneration in diesel particulate filters with fuel-borne catalyst (FBC) support with emphasis on the development of thermal stresses critical for filter durability. The study is based on experiments performed on engine dynamometer, corresponding to “worst-case” scenario, as well as on advanced, multi-dimensional mathematical modeling. A new 2-dimensional mathematical model is presented which introduces an additional dimension across the soot layer and wall. With this dimension it is possible to take into account the variability of catalyst/soot ratio in the layer and to compute intra-layer composition gradients. The latter are important since they induce interesting O2 diffusion phenomena, which affect the regeneration evolution.
Technical Paper

Engine Bench and Vehicle Durability Tests of Si bonded SiC Particulate Filters

2004-03-08
2004-01-0952
Modern filter systems allow a significant reduction of diesel particulate emissions. The new silicon bonded silicon carbide particulate filters (Si-SiC filters) play an important role in this application, because they provide flexibility in terms of mean pore size and porosity and also have a high thermal shock capability to meet both engineering targets and emission limits for 2005 and beyond. Particulate filters are exposed to high temperatures and a harsh chemical environment in the exhaust gas of diesel vehicles. This paper will present further durability evaluation results of the new Si bonded SiC particulate filters which have been collected in engine bench tests and vehicle durability runs. The Si-SiC filters passed both 100 and 200 regeneration cycles under severe ageing conditions and without any problems. The used filters were subjected to a variety of analytical tests. The back pressure and ash distribution were determined. The filter material was also analysed.
Technical Paper

Performance of Catalyzed Particulate Filters without Upstream Oxidation Catalyst

2005-04-11
2005-01-0952
The possibility to employ a single-brick system with a catalyzed filter (CDPF) for the after-treatment of diesel engines is potentially a promising and cost-effective solution. In the first part of this paper, the effectiveness of a single brick CDPF system towards reducing the gaseous CO and HC emissions is investigated experimentally and computationally. The second part of the paper deals with the behavior of single brick catalyzed filters compared with two brick systems comprising an upstream oxidation catalyst. The main differences of the two systems are highlighted in terms of regeneration efficiency and thermal loading, based on simulation results. The modeling work is based on a 3-dimensional model of the catalyzed filter and an axi-symmetric model of the oxidation catalyst. Model validations are presented based on engine bench testing.
Journal Article

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

2015-04-14
2015-01-1017
Since the implementation of Euro 6 in September 2014, diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values are enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between NOx and CO2 and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or a catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher NOx engine out emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, new aftertreatment systems will incorporate close-coupled DeNOx systems.
Technical Paper

Advanced Ceramic Wall Flow Filter for Reduction of Particulate Number Emission of Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0836
Low fuel consumption and improved power output are the main market drivers in the automotive industry. For these challenges, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology provides higher thermal efficiency than Multi Point Injection (MPI) engines and this technology is expanding as a solution to reduce CO₂ and improve driveability. In Europe under the Euro 5 regulation, engine downsizing becomes a major solution to reduce CO₂ of gasoline engines. For this concept GDI is essential together with turbocharging technology. However GDI technology increases particulate matter (PM) emissions compared to MPI engines. As the introduction of a Particle Number (PN) regulation for Euro 6 GDI vehicles has been decided, technologies to reduce GDI PN emissions start to become necessary. For this requirement, a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is an effective solution.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved SCRonDPF Design for Future Tighter Regulations and Reduced System Packaging

2018-04-03
2018-01-0344
With the push towards more stringent on-road US heavy duty diesel regulations (i.e. HD GHG Phase 2 and the proposed ARB 20 mg/bhp-hr NOx), emission system packaging has grown critical while improving fuel economy and NOx emissions. The ARB regulations are expected to be implemented post 2023 while regulation for EU off-road segment will begin from 2019. The regulation, called Stage V, will introduce particle number (PN) regulation requiring EU OEMs to introduce a diesel particulate filter (DPF) while customer demands will require the OEMs to maintain current emission system packaging. A viable market solution to meet these requirements, especially for EU Stage V being implemented first, is a DPF coated with a selective catalyst reduction (SCR) washcoat (i.e. SCRonDPF).
Technical Paper

Fundamental Study of GPF Performance on Soot and Ash Accumulation over Artemis Urban and Motorway Cycles - Comparison of Engine Bench Results with GPF Durability Study on Road

2017-09-04
2017-24-0127
With the increased use of engines utilizing direct fuel injection and the upcoming introduction of more stringent emissions legislation that regulates not only particulate mass (PM) but also particulate number (PN), the emissions from Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines (DISI) are an increasing concern. Gasoline Particle Filters (GPF) represent a potential way to reduce particle number emissions from DISI engines and are particularly effective considering the tough performance requirements during cold start and over RDE operation. Even though some learning from the development and application of particulate filters to diesel engines can be transferred to gasoline engines, the particle composition, mass to number ratio as well as the exhaust gas temperature and composition from gasoline engines are significantly different to diesel engines. Therefore, there is the need to study the application of particulate filters to gasoline engines in more depth.
Technical Paper

Next Generation of Ceramic Wall Flow Gasoline Particulate Filter with Integrated Three Way Catalyst

2015-04-14
2015-01-1073
A Particle Number (PN) limit for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles was introduced in Europe from September 2014 (Euro 6b). In addition, further certification to Real Driving Emissions (RDE) is planned [1] [2], which requires low and stable emissions in a wide range of engine operation, which must be durable for at least 160,000 km. To achieve such stringent targets, a ceramic wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) is one potential emission control device. This paper focuses on a catalyzed GPF, combining particle trapping and catalytic conversion into a single device. The main parameters to be considered when introducing this technology are filtration efficiency, pressure drop and catalytic conversion. This paper portrays a detailed study starting from the choice of material recipe, design optimization, engine bench evaluation, and final validation inside a standard vehicle from the market during an extensive field test up to 160,000 km on public roads.
Technical Paper

Performance of Next Generation Gasoline Particulate Filter Materials under RDE Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0980
In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 without sacrificing performance, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology, in combination with turbo charging technology, is expanding in the automotive industry. However, while this technology does provide a significant CO2 reduction, one side effect is increased Particle Number (PN) emission. As a result, from September 2017, GDI vehicles in Europe are required to meet the stringent PN emission limits of 6x1011 #/km under the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). In addition, it is required to meet PN emission of 9x1011 #/km under Real Driving Emission (RDE) testing, which includes a Conformity Factor (CF) of 1.5 to account for current measurement inaccuracies on the road. This introduction of RDE testing in Europe and China will especially provide a unique challenge for the design of exhaust after-treatment systems due to its wide boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Potential of a Low Pressure Drop Filter Concept for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines to Reduce Particulate Number Emission

2012-04-16
2012-01-1241
The automotive industry is currently evaluating the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) as a potential technology to reduce particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. In this paper, several GPF design measures which were taken to obtain a filter with lower pressure drop when compared to our previous concept will be presented. Based on engine test bench and vehicle test results, it was determined some soot will accumulate on the GPF walls, resulting in an increase in pressure drop. However, the accumulated soot will be combusted under high temperature and high O₂ concentration conditions. In a typical vehicle application, passive regeneration will likely occur and a cycle of soot accumulation and combustion might be repeated in the actual driving conditions.
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