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Technical Paper

A Structurally Durable EHC for the Exhaust Manifold

1994-03-01
940466
It is well known that an EHC (Electrically Heated Catalyst) is very effective in reducing cold start HC emissions. However, the large electric power consumption of the EHC is a major technical issue. When installed in the exhaust manifold, the EHC can take advantage of exhaust heat to warm up faster, resulting in a reduced electric power demand. Therefore, a structurally durable EHC which can withstand the severe manifold conditions is desirable. Through the use of a extruded monolithic metal substrate, with a flexible hexagonal cell structure and a special canning method, we have succeeded in developing a structurally durable EHC. This new EHC installed in the exhaust manifold with a light-off catalyst directly behind it demonstrated a drastic reduction in FTP (Federal Test Procedure) Total HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Wall-Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filter System with Efficient Reverse Pulse Air Regeneration

1995-02-01
950735
A wall-flow type diesel particulate filter system with reverse pulse air developed for vehicles should have the best regeneration performance possible with the least reverse pulse air as possible. We improved the reverse pulse air arrangement to decrease the air consumption and raise regeneration performance. Then, we developed diesel particulate filter (DPF) materials for the pore structure suitable for regeneration. Test equipment was designed to consume less air than a previous prototype system presented in our SAE paper [1]. The experiments used a soot generator simulating a diesel engine and a diesel engine. We confirmed that a wall-flow type DPF could possibly be applied to a regeneration system with the low air consumption for mounting on vehicles.
Technical Paper

Influence of Material Properties and Pore Design Parameters on Non-Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance with Ash Accumulation

2012-09-10
2012-01-1728
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are a common component in emission-control systems of modern clean diesel vehicles. Several DPF materials have been used in various applications. Silicone Carbide (SiC) is common for passenger vehicles because of its thermal robustness derived from its high specific gravity and heat conductivity. However, a segmented structure is required to relieve thermal stress due to SiC's higher coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Cordierite (Cd) is a popular material for heavy-duty vehicles. Cordierite which has less mass per given volume, exhibits superior light-off performance, and is also adequate for use in larger monolith structures, due to its lower CTE. SiC and cordierite are recognized as the most prevalent DPF materials since the 2000's. The DPF traps not only combustible particles (soot) but also incombustible ash. Ash accumulates in the DPF and remains in the filter until being physically removed.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Non-Bypass Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Highly Heat-Conductive SiC Honeycomb

2019-04-02
2019-01-0153
An exhaust heat recovery (EHR) system is an effective and attractive means of improving fuel economy and in-vehicle comfort, especially of hybrid cars in winter. However, many conventional bypass systems, which have a bypass pipe and bypass valve with a thermal actuator, are still large and heavy, and it is necessary not only to effectively improve the heat recovery but also to minimize the size and weight of EHR systems. Sakuma et al. reported new-concept heat exchangers and EHR systems using a highly heat-conductive SiC honeycomb, including a non-bypass system. However, since this non-bypass system always recovers heat from the exhaust gas, its heat recovery performance was set so as not to exceed the cooling capability of the radiator at a high engine load to prevent overheating of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Alternative Particle Number Filtration Performance Test Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-0983
Particle Number (PN) regulation was firstly introduced for European light-duty diesel vehicles back in 2011[1]. Since then, PN regulation has been and is being expanded to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and non-road diesel machineries. PN regulation will also be expanded to China and India around 2020 or later. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is significant factor for the above-mentioned PN regulation. This filter technology is to be continuously evolved for the near future tighter PN regulation. Generally, PN filtration performance test for filter technology development is carried out with chassis dynamometer, engine dynamometer or simulator [2]. This paper describes a simplified and relatively quicker alternative PN filtration performance test method for accelerating filter technology development compared to the current test method.
Technical Paper

Performance of Next Generation Gasoline Particulate Filter Materials under RDE Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0980
In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 without sacrificing performance, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology, in combination with turbo charging technology, is expanding in the automotive industry. However, while this technology does provide a significant CO2 reduction, one side effect is increased Particle Number (PN) emission. As a result, from September 2017, GDI vehicles in Europe are required to meet the stringent PN emission limits of 6x1011 #/km under the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). In addition, it is required to meet PN emission of 9x1011 #/km under Real Driving Emission (RDE) testing, which includes a Conformity Factor (CF) of 1.5 to account for current measurement inaccuracies on the road. This introduction of RDE testing in Europe and China will especially provide a unique challenge for the design of exhaust after-treatment systems due to its wide boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Durability Study on Si-SiC Material for DPF(2)

2004-03-08
2004-01-0951
Among the durability items of the DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter), high accumulated soot mass limit is important for the low fuel consumption and also for the robustness. In case of catalyzed DPF, it depends on the following two properties during soot regeneration. One is the lower maximum-temperature inside of the DPF during usual regeneration in order to preserve the catalyst performance. The other is the higher thermal resistance against the unusual regeneration of excess amount of soot. This paper presents the improvement in the soot mass limit of Si bonded SiC DPF. Maximum-temperature inside of the DPF was lowered by the improvement of thermal conductivity of the material, resulted from the controlling of the microstructure. Additionally the thermal resistance was improved by the surface treatment of the Si and SiC.
Technical Paper

Engine Bench and Vehicle Durability Tests of Si bonded SiC Particulate Filters

2004-03-08
2004-01-0952
Modern filter systems allow a significant reduction of diesel particulate emissions. The new silicon bonded silicon carbide particulate filters (Si-SiC filters) play an important role in this application, because they provide flexibility in terms of mean pore size and porosity and also have a high thermal shock capability to meet both engineering targets and emission limits for 2005 and beyond. Particulate filters are exposed to high temperatures and a harsh chemical environment in the exhaust gas of diesel vehicles. This paper will present further durability evaluation results of the new Si bonded SiC particulate filters which have been collected in engine bench tests and vehicle durability runs. The Si-SiC filters passed both 100 and 200 regeneration cycles under severe ageing conditions and without any problems. The used filters were subjected to a variety of analytical tests. The back pressure and ash distribution were determined. The filter material was also analysed.
Technical Paper

Study on Reliability of Wall-Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filter

2004-03-08
2004-01-0959
In this paper a method of DPF(Diesel Particulate Filter) lifetime estimation against the thermal stress is presented. In the method, experimentally measured material fatigue property and DPF temperature distributions under various conditions including regeneration mode were used to perform FEM stress analyses and the estimation of DPF lifetime and allowable stresses. From the viewpoint of the system design, to prevent DPF damages such as cracks created through thermal stress or melting, controlling the amount of PM accumulation is important. In this study, the pressure difference behavior under each of PM accumulation mode and regeneration mode was investigated experimentally. The experimental results showed different pressure drop behaviors in accumulation and regeneration. DPFs were observed in detail after PM accumulation and during regeneration to discuss mechanisms of the pressure difference behavior.
Technical Paper

Soot Regeneration Model for SiC-DPF System Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-0159
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has been developed as one of key technologies to comply with tight diesel PM emission regulations. For the DPF control system, it is necessary to maintain temperature inside the DPF below the allowable service temperature, especially during soot regeneration to prevent catalyst deterioration and cracks. Therefore, the evaluation of soot regeneration is one of the key development items for the DPF system. On the other hand, regeneration evaluation requires a lot of time and cost since many different regeneration conditions should be investigated in order to simulate actual driving. The simulation tool to predict soot regeneration behavior is a powerful tool to accelerate the development of DPF design and safe regeneration control strategies. This paper describes the soot regeneration model applied to fuel additive and catalyzed types, and shows good correlation with measured data.
Technical Paper

Application of Converter Efficiency Simulation Tool for Substrate Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-1487
As emissions regulations are becoming more stringent, various efforts to improve emission performance have been carried out in different areas including the honeycomb structure of catalytic converters. This report describes the development of a simulation tool to predict emission performance and simulation results for different cell structures. The simulation model was developed based on global kinetic chemical reaction model [1]. Having tuned the reaction parameters through a light-off test and estimated oxygen storage capacity through an oxygen storage test, we ultimately tuned the model in a vehicle test (with Bags 1 and 2, FTP 75). As a result, the simulated cumulative tailpipe emissions are within ±25 percent of the test results. Parameter analyses indicate that the amount of emissions decreased as the density of cells increased and that the amount of emissions also decreased the thinner the wall thicknesses were.
Technical Paper

Electric Heating Regeneration of Large Wall-Flow Type DPF

1991-02-01
910136
Ceramic wall-flow type diesel particulate filters (DPF) are being investigated for the aftertreatment systems of heavy duty engines. To use ceramic DPF more reliably and easily, electric heating regenerations are studied varying combustion air flow rates and amounts of accumulated soot. Despite electric heater capacity limitations, it is possible to regenerate DPF at a certain combustion air flow rate without thermal shock failure. The maximum withstood temperature against thermal shock failure of electric heating regeneration is similar to that of diesel burner regeneration on DPF with a nine inch diameter and a twelve inch length.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Pore Size Distribution of Wall Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filter

1992-02-01
920144
To reduce flow restriction of the wall flow type diesel particulate filters, the pore size distribution of DPF material was improved. Large pore material is preferred to reduce the flow restriction of the DPF. However pore diameter should be controlled within a certain limit to maintain high trapping efficiency against diesel particulates. In order to solve these conflicting matters, the mean pore diameter was enlarged from 13μm of the current material to 20 μm or more, while maintaining the cumulative volume of pores above 100μm within 8% of the total pore volume. The safe limit against thermal shock failure of the improved DPF material having 9″D x 12″/, 12.5/ volume was also determined using diesel burner regeneration system.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Thermal Shock Failure on Large Volume DPF

1990-02-01
900113
Ceramic honeycomb wall flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) have been investigated for use in exhaust gas control of diesel vehicles. However, before they can be used, prevention of thermal shock failure during combustion regeneration is necessary. Studies were conducted on thermal shock failures on 9-inch diameter large volume DPF during regeneration by finite element analyses (FEA). These studies reveal that, within safe limits, maximum thermal stress is almost constant even at different gas flow rates and oxygen concentrations. Regeneration tests were also conducted on large volume DPF of several materials having different pore size distributions. FEA thermal stress was compared with mechanical strength of the material at safe levels.
Technical Paper

Influence of Cell Shape Between Square and Hexagonal Cells

2003-03-03
2003-01-0661
Developing ultra thin wall ceramic substrates is necessary to meet stricter emissions regulations, in part because substrate cell walls need to be thinner in order to improve warm-up and light-off characteristics and lower exhaust system backpressure. However, the thinner the cell wall becomes, the poorer the mechanical and thermal characteristics of the substrate. Furthermore, the conditions under which the ultra thin wall substrates are used are becoming more severe. Therefore both the mechanical and thermal characteristics are becoming important parameters in the design of advanced converter systems. Whereas square cells are used world-wide in conjunction with oxidation and/or three-way catalysts, hexagonal cells, with features promoting a homogeneous catalyst coating layer, have found limited use as a NOx absorber due to its enhanced sulfur desorption capability.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Wall Flow Type Catalyzed Cordierite Particulate Filter for Heavy Duty Diesel

2005-04-11
2005-01-0666
This paper reports on the desired performances for Catalyzed Soot Filters (Hereinafter referred as “CSF”), which is composed of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) coated with an Oxidation Catalyst, its design factors and their influence on DPF performance, and on the lifetime prediction method to effectively design a DPF for durability. Performance means pressure drop, Particulate Matter (PM) regeneration limit, time for light-off, and canning strength. Design factors include cell structure, overall DPF size and material porosity. Knowing the relationships between performance and design factors assist the engineer in optimizing the selection of material, cell structure and size of the DPF.
Technical Paper

Selective Heat Insulation of Combustion Chamber Walls for a DI Diesel Engine with Monolithic Ceramics

1989-02-01
890141
The engine performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder DI diesel engine were experimentally investigated. The combustion chamber walls of the engine were thermally insulated with ceramic materials of SSN (Sintered Silicon Nitride) and PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia). Fuel economy and emissions characteristics were improved by insulating selected locations of the combustion chamber walls. The selective insulation helped to create activated diffusion combustion and resulted in more efficient use of the intake air.
Technical Paper

Study on Wall Pore Structure for Next Generation Diesel Particulate Filter

2008-04-14
2008-01-0618
A wall flow diesel particulate filter (DPF) having a novel wall pore structure design for reducing backpressure, increasing robustness, and increasing filtration efficiency is presented. The filter offers a linear relationship between soot loading and backpressure, offering greater accuracy in estimating the amount of soot loading from backpressure. Basic experiments were performed on small plate test pieces having various pore structure designs. Soot generated by a Cast-2F propane burner having a controlled size distribution was used. Cold flow test equipment that was carefully designed for flow distribution and soot/air mixing was used for precise measurement of backpressure during soot loading. The upstream and downstream PM numbers were counted by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to determine soot concentration in the gas flow and filtration efficiency of the test pieces. Microscope observations of the soot trapped in the wall were also carried out.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Highly Heat-Conductive SiC Honeycomb

2018-04-03
2018-01-0048
Reducing the fuel consumption of powertrains in internal combustion engines is still a major objective from an environmental viewpoint. Internal combustion engines waste a huge part of the fuel energy as heat in the exhaust line. Currently, exhaust heat recovery (EHR) systems are attracting attention as an effective means of reducing fuel consumption by collecting heat from waste exhaust gas and using it for rapid warming up of the engine and cabin heating [1, 2, 3, 4]. The benefits of the EHR system are affected by a trade-off between the efficacy of the recovered useful thermal energy and the adverse effect of the additional weight (heat mass) of the system [5]. Conventional EHR systems have a complex heat exchanger structure and a structure in which a bypass pipe and heat exchanger are connected in parallel, giving them a large size and heavy weight. We have developed a new-concept silicon carbide (SiC) heat exchanger with a dense SiC honeycomb.
Technical Paper

The Study for Structural Design of the Segmented SiC-DPF

2006-04-03
2006-01-1527
The application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF's) is expanding in the European, Japanese and US markets to comply with the tighter PM regulations. SiC DPF's, featuring greater robustness, have been applied extensively to passenger cars and are expanding into larger sizes for Light Duty Trucks applications. The SiC-DPF has higher mechanical strength when compared to other materials, such as Cordierite. However, SiC's thermal expansion ratio is greater. Therefore, the SiC-DPF is designed with 35 X 35mm segments and cement bonded construction, both of which function to relieve thermal stress. The appearance of the SiC-DPF with the segment design is shown in Figure 1. In this paper, the thermal stress mechanism of the segmented joint during soot regeneration and the influence of the cement properties on the thermal shock resistance was investigated by using the soot regeneration model and thermal stress analysis in addition to the engine test.
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