Refine Your Search



Search Results


New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.
Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Adsorber Catalyst for Use with High-Temperature Condition

NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite.
Technical Paper

Performance of Thick Film NOx Sensor on Diesel and Gasoline Engines

This paper describes a thick film ZrO2 NOx sensor feasible for diesel and gasoline engine applications, and introduces modification items from the previous concept design.(1) The modification items comprise simplifying the sensing element design to reduce output terminals for package design and applying temperature control to the sensing element in order to minimize sensor performance dependency on gas temperature. The NOx sensor indicates a stable linear signal in proportion to NOx concentration in a wide range of temperature, A/F and NOx concentration as a practical condition on both gasoline and diesel engines. The NOx sensor shows a good response in hundred msec. and a sharp signal following NOx generation in a transient state as well. Besides, another type of a NOx sensor is proposed for low NOx measurement in a practical use, by an electromotive force(EMF) voltage instead of a pumping current.
Technical Paper

Advanced Ceramic Substrate: Catalytic Performance Improvement by High Geometric Surface Area and Low Heat Capacity

Catalytic performance can be improved by increasing geometric surface area (GSA) and reducing bulk density (BD), namely heat capacity, using high cell-density / thinwall advanced ceramic substrates. The advanced substrates, such as 3 mil/600 cpsi and 2 mil/900 cpsi have improved the catalytic performance over the conventional substrates, and are expected to help in complying with future emission regulations, as well as catalyst downsizing. This paper describes the effects of GSA and BD using Pd-based catalysts. The reduction of hydrocarbons emissions was demonstrated significantly at close-coupled location, and dual bed design was proven effective. The effectiveness at under-floor location was not as significant as the close-coupled location.
Technical Paper

Thick Film ZrO2 NOx Sensor

This paper describes the design concept and evaluation test results of a multi-layered, thick film zirconia NOx sensor which can be used for lean-burn engine management. The oxygen concentration in the measuring gas is lowered to a predetermined level with an oxygen pumping cell, in the first stage. In the second stage, another pumping cell further lowers the oxygen concentration which results in simultaneous NOx decomposition. The second stage pumping current is proportional to the NOx concentration in the measuring gas.
Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Cold Start Emissions

In order to meet the strict automobile emission regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, new aftertreatment technologies such as the EHC and HC Adsorber have been developed to reduce the cold start emissions. The EHC is obviously effective in reducing emissions, but has the demerits of a large electric power demand and a complicated power control system to support it (13). A by-pass type HC adsorber system has the concerns of unreliable by-pass valves and complicated plumbing (10). A major technical challenge of the in-line type HC adsorber was the difference between the HC desorption temperature and the light-off temperature of the burn-off catalyst. This paper describes the evaluation results of a completely passive “In-line HC Adsorber System” which can reduce the cold start emissions without the application of any type of mechanical or pneumatic control valve in the exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Study of Ceramic Catalyst Optimization for Emission Purification Efficiency

In this study, to satisfy increasingly strict emission regulations, the conversion efficiency of a 0.11 mm (4 mil) thin-wall catalyst is discussed. The effects of catalyst bulk density on reducing heat mass to improve catalyst emission conversion in the early cold transient mode (Bag 1 in the FTP-75 mode) is quantitatively discussed. To analyze the effects of low heat mass, catalyst's bed temperatures were measured. Effects of the geometric surface area (GSA) and volume of the catalyst were also analyzed. An early feedback control system with an HEGO oxygen sensor and a secondary air injection control system with an original oxygen sensor were compared with an original control system on THC, CO, and NOx emission amounts.
Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon Adsorber for Cold Start Emissions - Part II

The in-line hydrocarbon (HC) adsorber is a passive after-treatment technology to address cold-start hydrocarbons in automotive engine exhaust gas. A major technical challenge of the in-line HC adsorber is the difference between the HC release temperature of the adsorber and the light-off temperature of the burn-off (BO) Catalyst. We call this phenomenon the “reversed-temperature difference”. To reduce the reversed temperature difference, NGK has proposed a new “In-line HC Adsorber System” which consists of light-off (LO) Catalyst + Barrel Zeolite Adsorber (BZA), with a hole through the center, BO Catalyst and secondary air injection management (SAE 970266). This, our latest paper, describes the evaluation of various adsorbents and the effect of the center hole on the Adsorber BZA. The adsorber system, which had the Adsorber BZA with a 25mm ϕ center hole and adsorbent coated, confirmed 30% lower FTP NMHC emission versus a system with no center hole or adsorbent coating.
Technical Paper

Thick Film ZrO2 NOx Sensor for the Measurement of Low NOx Concentration

A practical ZrO2 NOx sensor using dual oxygen pumping cells has been introduced for the control of NOx emitted from a lean-burn gasoline engine and diesel engine.(1),(2). However, the measuring accuracy was not high enough to be useful for controlling or monitoring a low level of NOx concentration such as several tens ppm behind a three way catalyst or lean NOx catalyst which is NOx adsorption or De-NOx catalyst. This paper describes improvement of the interference effect of oxygen in the exhaust gas from the lean-burn gasoline engine and diesel engine. The cause of oxygen dependency is analyzed/revealed and a method of improvement is introduced. The improved NOx sensor has an approximately · · 2% measuring error in the wide range of oxygen concentration on a model gas system, compared to the · ·10% of the previous one.
Technical Paper

Electric Heating Regeneration of Large Wall-Flow Type DPF

Ceramic wall-flow type diesel particulate filters (DPF) are being investigated for the aftertreatment systems of heavy duty engines. To use ceramic DPF more reliably and easily, electric heating regenerations are studied varying combustion air flow rates and amounts of accumulated soot. Despite electric heater capacity limitations, it is possible to regenerate DPF at a certain combustion air flow rate without thermal shock failure. The maximum withstood temperature against thermal shock failure of electric heating regeneration is similar to that of diesel burner regeneration on DPF with a nine inch diameter and a twelve inch length.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of an LHR DI Diesel Engine

The effect on engine performance of insulating combustion chambers was simulated for a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. We developed a low heat rejection (LHR) diesel cycle simulation. It includes a gas flow model, a heat transfer model, and a two zone combustion model. In the heat transfer model, convective and radiation heat transfer between the gas and walls was computed, taking into account the combustion chamber surface temperature swings. In the combustion model's combustion zone, the temperature and the chemical equilibrium compositions were determined. They were used to calculate the NO formation rate by assuming a modified Zeldvich mechanism. The combustion zone temperature was also used to estimate the radiation heat transfer. Simulations were performed of various combustion chamber surface materials and various LHR levels. The factors which affect thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions were deduced and their influences discussed.
Technical Paper

Controlling of Heating Rates for Safe Regeneration of Ceramic Honeycomb Diesel Particulate Filter

Thermal shock failures have been considered as one of the most significant issues for wall flow type ceramic diesel particulate filters during their regeneration. This paper describes the experiments which were conducted in order to study effects of heating rates of the accumulated diesel particulate on the thermal shock failure of the filters using an NGK soot generator. The results showed favorable heating rates of the particulate in terms of the amounts of the accumulated particulate up to which the filters are safely regenerated.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Pore Size Distribution of Wall Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filter

To reduce flow restriction of the wall flow type diesel particulate filters, the pore size distribution of DPF material was improved. Large pore material is preferred to reduce the flow restriction of the DPF. However pore diameter should be controlled within a certain limit to maintain high trapping efficiency against diesel particulates. In order to solve these conflicting matters, the mean pore diameter was enlarged from 13μm of the current material to 20 μm or more, while maintaining the cumulative volume of pores above 100μm within 8% of the total pore volume. The safe limit against thermal shock failure of the improved DPF material having 9″D x 12″/, 12.5/ volume was also determined using diesel burner regeneration system.
Technical Paper

Alternative Particle Number Filtration Performance Test Method

Particle Number (PN) regulation was firstly introduced for European light-duty diesel vehicles back in 2011[1]. Since then, PN regulation has been and is being expanded to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and non-road diesel machineries. PN regulation will also be expanded to China and India around 2020 or later. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is significant factor for the above-mentioned PN regulation. This filter technology is to be continuously evolved for the near future tighter PN regulation. Generally, PN filtration performance test for filter technology development is carried out with chassis dynamometer, engine dynamometer or simulator [2]. This paper describes a simplified and relatively quicker alternative PN filtration performance test method for accelerating filter technology development compared to the current test method.
Technical Paper

Study on Next Generation Diesel Particulate Filter

Although diesel engines are superior to gasoline engines in terms of the demand to reduce CO2 emissions, diesel engines suffer from the problem of emitting Particulate Matter (PM). Therefore, a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) has to be fitted in the engine exhaust aftertreatment system. From the viewpoint of reducing CO2 emissions, there is a strong demand to reduce the exhaust system pressure drop and for DPF designs that are able to help reduce the pressure drop. A wall flow DPF having a novel wall pore structure design for reducing pressure drop, increasing robustness and increasing filtration efficiency is presented. The filter offers a linear relationship between PM loading and pressure drop, offering lower pressure drop and greater accuracy in estimating the accumulated PM amount from pressure drop. First, basic experiments were performed on small plate test samples having various pore structure designs.
Technical Paper

New Particulate Filter Concept to Reduce Particle Number Emissions

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines achieve better fuel economy but have the drawback of increased Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. As known from diesel engine applications particulate filters are an effective PM reduction device which is expected to be effective for reduction of particulates emitted by GDI engines as well. For this investigation new filter concepts especially designed for GDI applications are proposed. Filtration efficiency, pressure drop and regeneration performance were verified by cold flow bench and engine and chassis dynamometer testing. The experimental data were used to discuss the validity of these new filter design concepts.
Technical Paper

Study on Wall Pore Structure for Next Generation Diesel Particulate Filter

A wall flow diesel particulate filter (DPF) having a novel wall pore structure design for reducing backpressure, increasing robustness, and increasing filtration efficiency is presented. The filter offers a linear relationship between soot loading and backpressure, offering greater accuracy in estimating the amount of soot loading from backpressure. Basic experiments were performed on small plate test pieces having various pore structure designs. Soot generated by a Cast-2F propane burner having a controlled size distribution was used. Cold flow test equipment that was carefully designed for flow distribution and soot/air mixing was used for precise measurement of backpressure during soot loading. The upstream and downstream PM numbers were counted by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to determine soot concentration in the gas flow and filtration efficiency of the test pieces. Microscope observations of the soot trapped in the wall were also carried out.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Cordierite Honeycomb Substrate for SCR Coating Realizing System Compactness and Low Backpressure

Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Lean NOx Trap (LNT) systems are key technologies to reduce NOx emission for diesel on-highway vehicles to meet worldwide tighter emission regulations. In addition DeNOx catalysts have already been applied to several commercial off-road applications. Adding the DeNOx catalyst to existing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) emission control system requires additional space and will result in an increase of emission system back pressure. Therefore it is necessary to address optimizing the DeNOx catalyst in regards to back pressure and downsizing. Recently, extruded zeolite for DeNOx application has been considered. This technology improves NOx conversion at low temperature due to the high catalyst amount. However, this technology has concerned about strength and robustness, because the honeycomb body is composed of catalyst.
Technical Paper

Influence of Material Properties and Pore Design Parameters on Non-Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance with Ash Accumulation

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are a common component in emission-control systems of modern clean diesel vehicles. Several DPF materials have been used in various applications. Silicone Carbide (SiC) is common for passenger vehicles because of its thermal robustness derived from its high specific gravity and heat conductivity. However, a segmented structure is required to relieve thermal stress due to SiC's higher coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Cordierite (Cd) is a popular material for heavy-duty vehicles. Cordierite which has less mass per given volume, exhibits superior light-off performance, and is also adequate for use in larger monolith structures, due to its lower CTE. SiC and cordierite are recognized as the most prevalent DPF materials since the 2000's. The DPF traps not only combustible particles (soot) but also incombustible ash. Ash accumulates in the DPF and remains in the filter until being physically removed.