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Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Aromatics Type on the Particulate Matter and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter (PM) and NOx exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, DI diesel engine was investigated. Eight fuels were blended from conventional and oil sands crude oil sources to form five fuel pairs with similar densities but with different poly-aromatic (1.6 to 14.6%) or total aromatic (14.3 to 39.0%) levels. The engine was tuned to meet the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. An eight-mode, steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure was followed. The experimental results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the PM and NOx emissions of the five fuel pairs after removing the fuel sulphur content effect on PM emissions. However, there was a definite trend towards higher NOx emissions as the fuel density, poly-aromatic and total aromatic levels of the test fuels increased.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Exhaust Emissions of a Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine

In this study, the AVL 8-mode steady-state simulations of the EPA transient test were conducted on a two litre single cylinder Ricardo Proteus research engine using two fuel matrices, one consisting fuels having different cetane numbers and the other consisting fuels of different aromatic contents. Engine exhaust emissions of NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and particulates were measured at two different injection timings. The results show that the single cylinder engine behaves similarly as a number of multi-cylinder production engines. The 8-mode simulation was also shown to produce exhaust emissions close to those obtained from the EPA transient test procedure. The cetane number response of the research engine indicates that an increase in cetane number of the fuel with cetane improvers reduced NOx emissions but increased particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Fuels Derived from Oil Sands and Conventional Crude

The exhaust emissions from a single-cylinder version of a heavy-duty diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were studied using 12 diesel fuels derived from oil sands and conventional sources. The test fuels were blended from 22 refinery streams to produce four fuels (two from each source) at three different total aromatic levels (10, 20, and 30% by mass). The cetane numbers were held constant at 43. Exhaust emissions were measured using the AVL eight-mode steady-state test procedure. PM emissions were accurately modeled by a single regression equation with two predictors, total aromatics and sulphur content. Sulphate emissions were found to be independent of the type of sulphur compound in the fuel. NOx emissions were accurately modeled by a single regression equation with total aromatics and density as predictor variables. PM and NOx emissions were significantly significantly affected by fuel properties, but crude oil source did not play a role.