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Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on the Emission Characteristics of HCCI Engine Operation Using N-Heptane

2007-07-23
2007-01-1854
This paper presents the emission characteristics of a HCCI engine operation using n-heptane. The experiments were conducted in a single cylinder Co-operative Fuel Research (CFR) engine equipped with an air-assist port fuel injector. The effects of intake temperature, air/fuel ratio, compression ratio, turbo-charging, and EGR rate on exhaust emissions were explored. The analysis of the exhaust gases included oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and soot. The hydrocarbon species present in exhaust gases and their concentrations at several operating conditions were also characterized. The strategies to obtain low HC, CO and NOx emissions are presented and discussed. The approaches to effectively retard HCCI combustion phase without deteriorating combustion efficiency are examined. It was found that HCCI combustion produces extremely low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Unique Icing Spray System for a New Facility for Certification of Large Turbofan Engines

2011-06-13
2011-38-0099
The Global Aerospace Centre for Icing and Environmental Research (GLACIER) facility has been constructed in Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. This project involves the construction and operation of a facility which will provide icing certification tests for large gas turbine engines, as well as performance, endurance and other gas turbine engine qualification testing. MDS Aero Support, in partnership with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), Pratt and Whitney Canada, and Rolls Royce Canada, has developed a globally unique outdoor engine test and certification facility. The prime purpose of this facility is for icing certification of aviation gas turbine engines, initially for Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney, two of the three largest gas turbine manufacturers in the world.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

2011-06-13
2011-38-0018
Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations.
Technical Paper

Naturally Aspirating Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe: Wind Tunnel Test Results and Design Modifications

2011-06-13
2011-38-0036
A total water content probe for flight- and ground-based testing is being completed. During operation across a range of altitudes and water content conditions, the probe has to maintain isokinetic flow, vaporize the solid and liquid water content and maintain the inlet ice free to ensure isokinetic flow. Despite achieving isokinetic operation, the collection efficiency of particles less than 30 μm can be less than 100%. A correlation of collection efficiency to Stokes number has been determined to correct the results for this effect. In preparation for flight testing an integrated data acquisition, control and power supply unit was developed and successfully tested. Results from testing at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel are presented covering both ice crystals and super-cooled liquid conditions. The results correspond well to previously published work and problems encountered during previous testing of this probe are shown to have been resolved.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Drag Reduction Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles Using Surface, Wake and Underbody Pressure Measurements to Complement Aerodynamic Drag Measurements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0644
A multi-year, multi-vehicle study was conducted to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies for light-duty vehicles. Various technologies were evaluated through full-scale testing in a large low-blockage closed-circuit wind tunnel equipped with a rolling road, wheel rollers, boundary-layer suction and a system to generate road-representative turbulent winds. The technologies investigated include active grille shutters, production and custom underbody treatments, air dams, wheel curtains, ride height control, side mirror removal and combinations of these. This paper focuses on mean surface-, wake-, and underbody-pressure measurements and their relation to aerodynamic drag. Surface pressures were measured at strategic locations on four sedans and two crossover SUVs.
Technical Paper

Comparison Tests Between Major European and North American Automotive Wind Tunnels

1983-02-01
830301
The results of comparative aerodynamic force measurements on a full-scale notchback-type vehicle, performed between 6 European companies operating full-scale automotive wind tunnels, were published in the SAE Paper 800140. Correlation tests with the same vehicle have been extended to 2 further European and 3 North American wind tunnels. First the geometry, the design and the flow data of the different wind tunnels is compared. The facilities compared include wind tunnels with open-test-sections, closed-test-sections and one tunnel with slotted side walls. The comparison of results, especially for drag coefficients, show that the correlation between the differently designed wind tunnels is reasonable. Problems of blockage correction are briefly discussed. The comparison tests furthermore revealed that careful design of the wheel pads and blockage corrections for lift seem to be very influential in achieving reasonable lift correlations. Six-component measurements show similar problems.
Technical Paper

Influences on Energy Savings of Heavy Trucks Using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1181
An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode, and the followers were in CACC mode using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC string was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0 s or 87 m to 0.14 s or 4 m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mismatched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon.
Technical Paper

The Fate of Chlorine and Heavy Metals During Pyrolysis of Automobile Shredder Residue*

1999-03-01
1999-01-0671
One of the major sources of chlorine in automobiles is polyvinyl chloride (PVC). When old discarded automobiles enter the recycling loop by far the largest percent of this material finds its way into the solid waste fraction known as automobile shredder residue (ASR). While the majority of this waste is currently disposed of in landfills new processes are currently being evaluated to recycle and recover the valuable resources contained in this solid waste. Pyrolysis, the thermal cracking of the polymeric materials present in ASR, to recover the petrochemical hydrocarbons is one such technology which is receiving attention. However, like combustion with energy recovery, the pyrolysis process is receiving close scrutiny in terms of its environmental impact. These concerns have centered around the fate of the chlorine and the heavy metals present in the ASR.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2715
A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Dynamic Stability Characteristics of the Bell Model M427 Helicopter Using Parameter Estimation Technology

2002-11-05
2002-01-2916
A joint program between Bell Helicopter Textron Canada and the Flight Research Laboratory of Canada's National Research Council was initiated to address the aerodynamic modelling challenges of the Bell M427 helicopter. The primary objective was to use the NRC parameter estimation technique, based on modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE), on a limited set of flight test data to efficiently develop an accurate forward-flight mathematical model of the Bell M427. The effect of main rotor design changes on the aircraft stability characteristics was also investigated, using parameter estimation. This program has demonstrated the feasibility of creating a forward-flight rotorcraft aerodynamic mathematical model based on time-domain parameter estimation, and the ability of a 6 degree-of-freedom MMLE model to accurately document the impact of minor rotor modifications on aircraft stability.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of “Pyrolysis” as a Resource Recovery Option for Automobile Shredder Residue

1998-02-23
981163
Pyrolysis, the chemical cracking of organic materials such as polymeric materials represents an innovative technology to recover resources contained in automobile shredder residues (ASR). In this study the technical capabilities, economic viability and environmental impact of pyrolysis as applied to ASR has been investigated. Based upon data provided by pyrolysis equipment suppliers, the pyrolysis of ASR appears to be a viable option to deal with the growing quantities of this material currently being produced. However, the selection of the most appropriate pyrolysis technology is dependant upon local needs and requirements.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Model for Soot Formation and Oxidation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

1995-10-01
952428
The concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter in the exhaust of diesel engines depends on the rates of formation and oxidation of soot in the combustion chamber. Soot forms early in the combustion process when local fuel-rich areas exist, whereas soot oxidation occurs later when more air is entrained into the fuel spray. Based on this understanding, a phenomenological combustion model is established. In the model, the cylinder volume is divided into four zones: a rich fuel spray core, a premixed-burning/burned gas zone, a mixing controlled burning zone and a lean air zone. Soot formation takes place in the mixing controlled burning zone where the local C/O ratio is above the critical value. Soot oxidation occurs in the premixed-burning/burned gas zone as air is entrained. By using a quasi-global chemical reaction scheme, the oxidation of soot particles by different species can be investigated.
Technical Paper

Potential for the Accumulation of Ice and Snow for a Boat-Tail Equipped Heavy-Duty Vehicle

2016-09-27
2016-01-8141
With increasing use of boat-tails on Canadian roads, a concern had been raised regarding the possibility for ice and snow to accumulate and shed from the cavity of a boat-tail affixed to a dry-van trailer, posing a hazard for other road users. This paper describes a preliminary evaluation of the potential for ice and snow accumulation in the cavity of a boat-tail-equipped heavy-duty vehicle. A transient CFD approach was used and combined with a quasi-static particle-tracking simulation to evaluate, firstly, the tendency of various representative ice or snow particles to be entrained in the vehicle wake, and secondly, the potential of such particles to accumulate on the aft end of a dry-van trailer with and without various boat-tail configurations. Results of the particle tracking analyses showed that the greatest numbers of particles impinge on the base of the trailer for the no-boat-tail case, concentrated on the upper surface of the back face of the trailer.
Technical Paper

In-Cabin Aeroacoustics of a Full-Scale Transport Truck

2016-09-27
2016-01-8143
The noise generated by the flow of air past a transport truck is a key design factor for the manufacturers of these vehicles as the sound levels in the cabin are a significant component of driver comfort. This paper describes a collaboration between Volvo GTT and the National Research Council Canada to measure the in-cabin aeroacoustics of a full-scale cab-over tractor in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel. Acoustic instrumentation was installed inside the tractor to record cabin noise levels and externally to acquire tunnel background noise data. Using a microphone mounted on the driver’s-side tunnel wall as a reference to remove variations in background noise levels between data points, differences in cabin noise levels were able to be detected when comparing the tractor with different configurations. The good repeatability of the data allowed for differences of as little as 0.5 dB to be measured.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cetane Enhancing Additives and Ignition Quality on Diesel Engine Emissions

1997-10-01
972968
The effects of cetane number and the cetane enhancing additives on diesel exhaust emissions were investigated on a single cylinder DI research engine. The engine used in this study incorporates the features of contemporary medium-to-heavy duty diesel engines and is tuned to US EPA 1994 emission standards. The engine experiments were run using the AVL 8-mode steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure. The experimental fuels included diesel fuels obtained from different sources with various natural cetane ratings as well as a number of fuels blended by adding two cetane improvers into three base fuels. The two cetane improvers we used were a nitrate-type additive and a peroxide-type additive. Increasing the cetane number resulted in a general decrease in NOx emissions. Similar reductions in NOx emissions were observed with increasing cetane number for all the base fuels irrespective of the cetane improver used in the fuel.
Technical Paper

Advanced Real-time Aerodynamic Model Identification Technique

2001-09-11
2001-01-2965
The Flight Research Laboratory (FRL), National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is currently developing an in-flight aircraft aerodynamic model identification technique that determines the small perturbation model at a given test condition. Initial demonstrations have been carried out using the NRC Falcon 20 research aircraft. An efficient system architecture, in terms of both software algorithms and hardware processing, has been designed to meet the stringent near real-time requirements of an in-flight system. As well, novel hardware and software techniques are being applied to the calibration and measurement of the fundamental in-flight parameters, such as air data. The small perturbation models are then combined to develop a global model of the aircraft that is validated by comparing the model response to flight data. The maneuvers were performed according to the FAA Acceptance Test Guide (ATG).
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Exhaust Emissions of a Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962116
In this study, the AVL 8-mode steady-state simulations of the EPA transient test were conducted on a two litre single cylinder Ricardo Proteus research engine using two fuel matrices, one consisting fuels having different cetane numbers and the other consisting fuels of different aromatic contents. Engine exhaust emissions of NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and particulates were measured at two different injection timings. The results show that the single cylinder engine behaves similarly as a number of multi-cylinder production engines. The 8-mode simulation was also shown to produce exhaust emissions close to those obtained from the EPA transient test procedure. The cetane number response of the research engine indicates that an increase in cetane number of the fuel with cetane improvers reduced NOx emissions but increased particulate emissions.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Ultrafine and Black Carbon Emissions from Different Aviation Alternative Fuels

2015-09-15
2015-01-2562
This study reports gaseous and particle (ultrafine and black carbon (BC)) emissions from a turbofan engine core on standard Jet A-1 and three alternative fuels, including 100% hydrothermolysis synthetic kerosene with aromatics (CH-SKA), 50% Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acid paraffinic kerosene (HEFA-SPK), and 100% Fischer Tropsch (FT-SPK). Gaseous emissions from this engine for various fuels were similar but significant differences in particle emissions were observed. During the idle condition, it was observed that the non-refractory mass fraction in the emitted particles were higher than during higher engine load condition. This observation is consistent for all test fuels. The 100% CH-SKA fuel was found to have noticeable reductions in BC emissions when compared to Jet A-1 by 28-38% by different BC instruments (and 7% in refractory particle number (PN) emissions) at take-off condition.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Aerodynamics of Drag Reduction Technologies for Light-duty Vehicles: a Comprehensive Wind Tunnel Study

2016-04-05
2016-01-1613
In a campaign to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies recently introduced for light-duty vehicles, a 3-year, 24-vehicle study was commissioned by Transport Canada. The intent was to evaluate the level of drag reduction associated with each technology as a function of vehicle size class. Drag reduction technologies were evaluated through direct measurements of their aerodynamic performance on full-scale vehicles in the National Research Council Canada (NRC) 9 m Wind Tunnel, which is equipped with a the Ground Effect Simulation System (GESS) composed of a moving belt, wheel rollers and a boundary layer suction system. A total of 24 vehicles equipped with drag reduction technologies were evaluated over three wind tunnel entries, beginning in early 2014 to summer 2015. Testing included 12 sedans, 8 sport utility vehicles, 2 minivans and 2 pick-up trucks.
Journal Article

A System for Simulating Road-Representative Atmospheric Turbulence for Ground Vehicles in a Large Wind Tunnel

2016-04-05
2016-01-1624
Turbulence is known to influence the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of ground vehicles. What is not thoroughly understood are the characteristics of turbulence that influence this performance and how they can be applied in a consistent manner for aerodynamic design and evaluation purposes. Through collaboration between Transport Canada and the National Research Council Canada (NRC), a project was undertaken to develop a system for generating road-representative turbulence in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel, named the Road Turbulence System (RTS). This endeavour was undertaken in support of a larger project to evaluate new and emerging drag reduction technologies for heavy-duty vehicles. A multi-stage design process was used to develop the RTS for use with a 30% scale model of a heavy-duty vehicle in the NRC 9m Wind Tunnel.
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