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Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel on PAHs, Nitro-PAHs and Oxy-PAHs Emissions from a Light Vehicle Operated Over the European and the Artemis Driving Cycles

This study examines the effects of neat soy-based biodiesel (B100) and its 50% v/v blend (B50) with low sulphur automotive diesel on vehicle PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) according to the European regulated technique. The vehicle was a Euro 2 compliant diesel passenger car, equipped with a 1.9 litre common-rail turbocharged direct injection engine and an oxidation catalyst. Emissions of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs were measured over the urban phase (UDC) and the extra-urban phase (EUDC) of the type approval cycle (NEDC). In addition, for evaluating realistic driving performance the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles (Urban, Road and Motorway) were used. Overall, 12 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, and 6 oxy-PAHs were determined. The results indicated that PAH emissions exhibited a reduction with biodiesel during all driving modes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Metals in the Oxidation Stability and Lubricity of Biodiesel Fuel

The introduction to the European market of higher levels of biodiesel blends focuses the research interest on the compatibility problems of the diesel fuel distribution system. The influence of metals in the oxidation stability and lubricity of two different types of commercially available FAMEs (without antioxidant additive) was investigated. Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Tin (Sn), were added in the form of solid metals (heterogeneous catalysis in liquid phase oxidation) and examined for their impact on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel. Oxidation stability was determined by Rancimat accelerated oxidation method, according to European Standard EN14214. Additionally, in order to examine the effect of the above mentioned metals in the presence of antioxidant additive, BHT was added in both biodiesel samples and oxidation stability determinations were carried out, as well.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Impact of Biodiesel Origin and Type on the Exhaust Emissions from a Euro 4 Pick-up Truck

This study investigates the impact of mid-high biodiesel blends on the criteria and PAH emissions from a modern pick-up diesel vehicle. The vehicle was a Euro 4 (category N1, subclass III) compliant common-rail light-duty goods pick-up truck fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer equipped with CVS, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted over the certification New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. Aiming to evaluate the fuel impact on emissions, a soy-based biodiesel, a palm-based biodiesel, and an oxidized biodiesel obtained from used frying oils were blended with a typical automotive ultra-low-sulfur diesel at proportions of 30, 50 and 80% by volume. The experimental results revealed that CO₂ emissions and fuel consumption exhibited an increase with biodiesel over all driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multi-Zone Model for the Description of Physical Processes in HCCI Engines

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have the potential of reducing NOx emissions as compared to conventional Diesel or SI engines. Soot emissions are also very low due to the premixed nature of combustion. However, the unburned hydrocarbon emissions are relatively high and the same holds for CO emissions. The formation of these pollutants, for a given fuel, is strongly affected by the temperature distribution as well as by the charge motion within the engine cylinder. The foregoing physical mechanisms determine the local ignition timing and burning rate of the charge affecting engine efficiency, performance and stability. Obviously the success of any model describing HCCI combustion depends on its ability to describe adequately both the chemistry of combustion and the physical phenomena, i.e. heat and mass transfer within the cylinder charge. In the present study a multi-zone model is developed to describe the heat and mass transfer mechanism within the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Single Fuel Research Program Comparative Results of the Use of JP-8 Aviation Fuel versus Diesel Fuel on a Direct Injection and Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

During the last years a great effort has been made by many NATO nations to move towards the use of one military fuel for all the land-based military aircraft, vehicles and equipment employed on the military arena. This idea is known to as the Single Fuel Concept (SFC). The fuel selected for the idea of SFC is the JP-8 (F-34) military aviation fuel which is based upon the civil jet fuel F-35 (Jet A-1) with the inclusion of military additives possessing anti-icing and lubricating properties. An extended experimental investigation has been conducted in the laboratory of Thermodynamic and Propulsion Systems at the Hellenic Air Force Academy. This investigation was conducted with the collaboration of the respective laboratories of National Technical University of Athens and Hellenic Naval Academy as well.
Technical Paper

Comparative Evaluation of EGR, Intake Water Injection and Fuel/Water Emulsion as NOx Reduction Techniques for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Despite the improvement in HD Diesel engine out emissions future emission legislation requires significant reduction of both NOx and particulate matter. To accomplish this task various solutions exist involving both internal and external measures. As widely recognized, it will be possibly required to employ both types of measures to meet future emission limits. Towards this direction, it is necessary to reduce NOx further using internal measures. Several solutions exist in that area, but the most feasible ones according to the present status of technical knowledge are EGR, water injection or fuel/water emulsions. These technologies aim to the reduction of both the gas temperature and oxygen concentration inside the combustion chamber that strongly affect NOx formation. However, there remain open points mainly concerning the effectiveness of water addition techniques and penalties related to bsfc and soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Determination of Physicochemical Properties of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE) - Diesel Fuel Blends

In this study, the transesterification process of 4 different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil) took place utilizing ethanol, in order to characterize the ethyl esters and their blends with diesel fuel obtained as fuels for internal combustion engines. All ethyl esters were synthesized using calcium ethoxide as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil, and the reaction temperature were studied on conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst amount (3.5%), and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 80.5%.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Lubricity of Greek Road Diesel and the Effect of the Addition of Specific Types of Biodiesel

This work includes an assessment of the lubricity of Greek road diesel fuel of low sulfur content, and the effect of the addition of two different types of biodiesel which can be produced from raw materials abundant in the Mediterranean area. In this study, a series of representative fuels of the Greek fuel market were tested. In some of them, the lubricity was measured three times, during a period of three months from the day of each sample was produced. In all cases a decrease of the wear scar diameter (WSD) was measured; this behaviour could be attributed to the oxidation reactions that take place during the storage period. In order to monitor the effect of the addition of biodiesel on the lubricity of road diesel, biodiesels produced from sunflower oil and olive oil were used. The use of rape seed oil biodiesel as a diesel fuel substitute is a commercial event in Central Europe; in the United States the soybean oil biodiesel has been examined in detail.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Fuel Composition on the Formation of Pollutants in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

A great deal of research is taking place at the present time in the field of diesel engines, especially regarding the emission of gaseous pollutants and soot. This research is essential for engine manufacturers since it is difficult for diesel engines to meet current standards regarding soot and nitric oxide emissions. The problem will become even more severe when the new legislation will be applicable requiring a 50% reduction of existing levels. Many manufacturers and researchers feel that engines will be difficult to meet this criterion without the use of other techniques such as gas aftertreatment or newly developed fuels (low sulfur content, etc.). The aim of this research is to examine the effect of fuel composition and physical properties on the mechanism of combustion and pollutants formation.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Oxidation Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends using the Modified Rancimat Method

This study describes the effect of different types of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) on the oxidative stability of low and ultra low sulfur automotive diesel fuels. Eight different samples of FAME were employed to create blends of 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10% v/v with four different types of diesel fuels. The samples were analyzed using the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751). The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of biodiesel source material and biodiesel concentration in diesel fuel, on the oxidation stability of the final blend. Moreover, the effect of sulfur content and the presence of cracked stocks in the base diesel fuel, on the oxidation stability of the final blends were also investigated.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Analysis of SI Engine Operation on Variable Composition Biogas-Hydrogen Blends Using a Quasi-Dimensional, Multi-Zone Combustion Model

In this work, a quasi-dimensional, multi-zone combustion model is analytically presented, for the prediction of performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions of a homogeneous charge spark ignition (SI) engine, fueled with biogas-H2 blends of variable composition. The combustion model is incorporated into a closed cycle simulation code, which is also fully described. Combustion is modeled on the basis of turbulent entrainment theory and flame stretch concepts. In this context, the entrainment speed, by which unburned gas enters the flame region, is simulated by the turbulent burning velocity of a flamelet model. A flame stretch submodel is also included, in order to assess the flame response on the combined effects of curvature, turbulent strain and nonunity Lewis number mixture. As far as the burned gas is concerned, this is treated using a multi-zone thermodynamic formulation, to account for the spatial distribution of temperature and NO concentration inside the burned volume.
Journal Article

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions of a Euro 4 SUV Operated with Diesel and Soy-based Biodiesel Blends

In this study, regulated, unregulated exhaust emissions and fuel consumption with ultra low sulphur diesel and soy-based biodiesel blends at proportions of 10 and 30% v/v have been investigated. A Euro 4 compliant SUV, equipped with a 2.2 litre common-rail diesel engine and an oxidation catalyst was tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles which simulate urban, rural, and highway driving conditions in Europe. The regulated pollutants were characterized by determined NOx, PM, CO, and HC. CO2 was also quantified in the exhaust. Overall, 16 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, 6 oxy-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds and particulate alkanes ranged from C13 to C35 were determined in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Monoglyceride Content in Marine Diesel Fuel-A Guide

Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel during winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend Cloud Point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent engine stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that the saturated monoglyceride content was a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters, as well as traces of Saturated DiGlycerides (SDG), were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest a procedure in order to predict the content of the Saturated MonoGlycerides (SMG) even with uncertainty which can vary from −50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as that which was introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Fuel using the Rancimat and the RSSOT methods

For many years Rancimat was the only standardized method for measuring the oxidation stability of FAME and FAME/diesel blends. However this method is not applicable to pure conventional petroleum products and so the effect of FAME on diesel fuel stability could not be evaluated directly. Recently a Rapid Small Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) that covers the determination of the stability of biofuels and petroleum products was developed and standardized. In this study the oxidation stability of seven different types of FAMEs was assessed, either neat or blended with three types of ULSD fuel, by employing both the Rancimat and the RSSOT accelerated oxidation methods. The determinations from either test were analyzed and a comparative assessment of these two method was carried out.
Technical Paper

Diesel/Soy Methyl Ester Blends Emissions Profile from a Passenger Vehicle Operated on the European and the Athens Driving Cycles

The need of a more realistic and dynamic driving cycle which simulates real-world driving conditions in the largest city in the greater area of Balkans, led to the development of the Athens Driving Cycle (ADC). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted over the ADC and compared with those of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a chassis dynamometer. A Euro II compliant diesel vehicle was used in this study, fuelled with a typical automotive diesel fuel and biodiesel blends at proportions of 5, 10, and 20 % respectively. The unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction (SOF) in the particulate matter, together with qualitative hydrocarbon analysis present in the SOF fraction, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones). Emissions of NOx, CO, THC, CO2, and PM10 were also measured over the two test cycles.
Journal Article

Impact of Simultaneous ETBE and Ethanol Addition on Motor Gasoline Properties

This study examines the impact of ETBE and ethanol addition on the main properties of motor gasoline. European Union mandates the use of biofuels in all transport fuels, according to the 2003/30/EC Directive. The addition of ethanol, a known octane enhancing component, in small proportions significantly increases the vapor pressure of the final gasoline, exceeding the maximum specification limits. ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) is on the other hand an excellent but expensive octane enhancing component with beneficial impact on vapor pressure of the final gasoline. This paper examines the ability of ETBE to act as a stabilizer in gasoline - ethanol blends. Two gasoline samples with different chemical compositions and characteristics were prepared by blending basic refinery components. In each sample, ETBE was added in concentrations of 2, 4, and 6 % V/V respectively. In each of these ETBE - gasoline blends, ethanol was added in concentrations from 1 to 6 % V/V in 1% steps.
Journal Article

Effect of Fuel Chemical Structure and Properties on Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions: Review of the Results of Four European Research Programs

During recent years, the deterioration of greenhouse phenomenon, in conjunction with the continuous increase of worldwide fleet of vehicles and crude oil prices, raised heightened concerns over both the improvement of vehicle mileage and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Diesel engines have the highest fuel economy and thus, highest CO2 reduction potential among all other thermal propulsion engines due to their superior thermal efficiency. However, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines are comparatively higher than those emitted from modern gasoline engines. Therefore, reduction of diesel emitted pollutants and especially, PM and NOx without increase of specific fuel consumption or let alone improvement of diesel fuel economy is a difficult problem, which requires immediate and drastic actions to be taken.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone Combustion Modelling for the Prediction of Pollutants Emissions and Performance of DI Diesel Engines

In the past years various models have been proposed for the modelling of performance and pollutants emissions from DI diesel engines. These models range from complicated 3D detailed ones up to simple two zone phenomenological ones. The latter ones although simple offer solutions in engine study and are widely used due to their low computational cost and simplicity. In the present work a multi-zone model for direct injection diesel engines is presented together with its application on a direct injection diesel engine located at the authors laboratory. Multi-zone models usually fail to predict adequately both pollutants emissions and performance and thus focus mainly on pollutants emissions. Of course this is not acceptable since the formation of pollutants is strongly related to the combustion mechanism. In the present work an effort has been made to overcome this problem and predict both performance and emissions throughout the engine operating range.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Analysis of the Effect of Governor Technical Characteristics and Type on the Transient Performance of a Naturally Aspirated IDI Diesel Engine

A transient analysis simulation program is developed for studying the response of an indirect injection, naturally aspirated, diesel engine after a rapid increase in load when this is equipped with various types of indirect acting governors. Analytical expressions are presented for the better simulation of engine mechanical friction, inertia moments and heat loss to the walls under transient conditions, governor dynamics for both the sensing element and the servopiston, soot emissions and the fuel pump operation. Various types of governor sensing elements (i.e. mechanical, electrical, two-pulse) and feedbacks (i.e. unity and vanishing) for the servomechanism are studied. Explicit diagrams are given to show how each combination of governor type and technical parameters (i.e. mass and number of flyweights, geometrical dimensions, amplification factors) affects the speed response as well as the speed droop and the recovery period of the particular engine.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of the Availability Balance in an Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder

The current work uses a method developed by the authors for both combustion irreversibility and working medium availability computations in a high speed, naturally aspirated, four stroke, internal combustion engine cylinder. The objective of the study was to extrapolate already published results of the second-law analysis of diesel engine operation by studying parametrically the effect of main operating parameters such as engine speed of rotation, injection timing, and fuel composition. Extensive experimental data were available for the case of dodecane injection, which were used for the determination of the fuel reaction rate. Computationally, the same reaction rates were used for methane and methanol injection. The production rate of irreversibility during combustion was analytically calculated as a function of the fuel reaction rate with the combined use of first and second-law arguments and a chemical equilibrium hypothesis.