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Technical Paper

Application of the CTC Model to Predict Combustion and Pollutant Emissions in a Common-Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Multiple Injections and High EGR

2012-04-16
2012-01-0154
Multiple injections and high EGR rates are now widely adopted for combustion and emissions control in passenger car diesel engines. In a wide range of operating conditions, fuel is provided through one to five separated injection events, and recirculated gas fractions between 0 to 30% are used. Within this context, fast and reliable multi-dimensional models are necessary to define suitable injection strategies for different operating points and reduce both the costs and time required for engine design and development. In this work, the authors have applied a modified version of the characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) to predict combustion and pollutant emissions in diesel engines using advanced injection strategies. The Shell auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition, with a suitable set of coefficients that were tuned for diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Integrated Breathing Model and Multi-Variable Control Approach for Air Management in Advanced Gasoline Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0658
The evolution of automotive engines calls for the design of electronic control systems optimizing the engine performance in terms of reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, the opportunities provided by modern engines have not yet completely exploited, since the adopted control strategies are still largely developed in a very heuristic way and rely on a number of SISO (Single Input Single Output) designs. On the contrary, the strong coupling between the available actuators calls for a MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) control design approach. To this regard, the availability of reliable dynamic engine models plays an important role in the design of engine control and diagnostic systems, allowing for a significant reduction of the development times and costs. This paper presents a control-oriented model of the air-path system of today's gasoline internal combustion engines.
Technical Paper

A Low Temperature Pathway Operating the Reduction of Stored Nitrates in Pt-Ba/Al2O3 Lean NOx Trap Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1368
In this paper the low temperature reduction process of nitrates stored at high temperatures over model Pt-Ba/Al2O3 LNT catalysts using both H2 and C3H6 is analyzed. The results indicate that over the Pt-Ba/Al2O3 catalyst the reduction of stored NOx with both H2 and C3H6 occurs at temperature below those corresponding to their thermal stability. Accordingly, the reduction process occurs through a Pt-catalyzed surface reaction, which does not involve, as a preliminary step, the thermal decomposition of the adsorbed NOx species. The occurrence of such a pathway also requires the co-presence of the storage element and of the noble metal on the same support.
Technical Paper

Emissions Optimization Potential of a Diesel Engine Running on HVO: A Combined Experimental and Simulation Investigation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0039
The present work investigates a number of recalibration possibilities of a common rail turbocharged diesel engine, aiming at the improvement of its emissions performance and fuel consumption (FC), with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Initially, steady-state experimental data with nominal engine settings revealed HVO benefits as a drop-in fuel. Under these conditions, pure HVO results in lower engine-out PM emissions, lower CO2 emissions, and lower mass-based FC, while the respective NOx emissions present a mixed trend. In mid loads and speeds NOx emissions of HVO are lower while at higher loads and speeds are slightly higher compared to conventional diesel. At a second step, a combustion model was developed, in order to investigate the possible re-adjustments of IT (Injection Timing) and EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) settings in order to exploit HVO’s properties for further reduction of emissions and FC.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Impact of Electrical Heating on the Light-off of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0961
In the last years, as a response to the more and more restrictive emission legislation, new devices (SRC, DOC, NOx-trap, DPF) have been progressively introduced as standard components of modern after-treatment system for Diesel engines. In addition, the adoption of electrical heating is nowadays regarded with interest as an effective solution to promote the light-off of the catalyst at low temperature, especially at the start-up of the engine and during the low load operation of the engine typical of the urban drive. In this work, a state-of-the-art 48 V electrical heated catalyst is considered, in order to investigate its effect in increasing the abatement efficiency of a standard DOC. The electrical heating device considered is based on a metallic support, arranged in a spiral layout, and it is heated by the Joule effect due to the passage of the electrical current.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Methodology between AVL Mean Value Engine Model and Measurements with Concept Analysis of Mean Value Representation for Engine Transient Tests

2017-09-04
2017-24-0053
The use of state of the art simulation tools for effective front-loading of the calibration process is essential to support the additional efforts required by the new Real Driving Emission (RDE) legislation. The process needs a critical model validation where the correlation in dynamic conditions is used as a preliminary insight into the bounds of the representation domain of engine mean values. This paper focuses on the methodologies for correlating dynamic simulations with emissions data measured during dynamic vehicle operation (fundamental engine parameters and gaseous emissions) obtained using dedicated instrumentation on a diesel vehicle, with a particular attention for oxides of nitrogen NOx specie. This correlation is performed using simulated tests run within AVL’s mean value engine and engine aftertreatment (EAS) model MoBEO (Model Based Engine Optimization).
Journal Article

A Kinetic Modelling Study of Alcohols Operating Regimes in a HCCI Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0077
Pursuing a sustainable energy scenario for transportation requires the blending of renewable oxygenated fuels such as alcohols into commercial hydrocarbon fuels. From a chemical kinetic perspective, this requires the accurate description of both hydrocarbon reference fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, etc.) and oxygenated fuels chemistry. A recent systematic investigation of linear C2-C5 alcohols ignition in a rapid compression machine at p = 10-30 bar and T = 650- 900 K has extended the scarcity of fundamental data at such conditions, allowing for a revision of the low temperature chemistry for alcohol fuels in the POLIMI mechanism. Heavier alcohols such as n-butanol and n-pentanol present ignition characteristic of interest for application in HCCI engines, due to the presence of the hydroxyl moiety reducing their low temperature reactivity compared to the parent linear alkanes (i.e. higher octane number).
Journal Article

Removal of NOx from Diesel Exhausts: The New “Enhanced NH3-SCR” Reaction

2010-04-12
2010-01-1181
Ammonia/urea-SCR is a mature technology, applied worldwide for the control of NOx emissions in combustion exhausts from thermal power plants, cogeneration units, incinerators and stationary diesel engines and more recently also from mobile sources. However a greater DeNOx activity at low temperatures is desired in order to meet more and more restrictive legislations. In this paper we report transient and steady state data collected over commercial Fe-ZSM-5 and V₂O₅-WO₃/TiO₂ catalysts showing high NOx reduction efficiencies in the 200 - 350°C T-range when NO and ammonia react with nitrates, e.g., in the form of an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate. Under such conditions a new reaction occurs, the so-called "Enhanced SCR" reaction, 2 NH₃ + 2 NO + NH₄NO₃ → 3 N₂ + 5 H₂O.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Flame Kernel Formation Processes of Propane-Air Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0696
Fuel lean combustion and exhaust gas dilution are known to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce NOx emissions. In this study, experiments are performed to understand the effect of equivalence ratio on flame kernel formation and flame propagation around the spark plug for different low turbulent velocities. A series of experiments are carried out for propane-air mixtures to simulate engine-like conditions. For these experiments, equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.9 are tested with 20 percent mass-based exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Turbulence is generated by a shrouded fan design in the vicinity of J-spark plug. A closed loop feedback control system is used for the fan to generate a consistent flow field. The flow profile is characterized by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. High-speed Schlieren visualization is used for the spark formation and flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Modeling n-dodecane Spray Combustion with a Representative Interactive Linear Eddy Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0571
Many new combustion concepts are currently being investigated to further improve engines in terms of both efficiency and emissions. Examples include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), lean stratified premixed combustion, stratified charge compression ignition (SCCI), and high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines, known as low temperature combustion (LTC). All of these combustion concepts have in common that the temperatures are lower than in traditional spark ignition or diesel engines. To further improve and develop combustion concepts for clean and highly efficient engines, it is necessary to develop new computational tools that can be used to describe and optimize processes in nonstandard conditions, such as low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

High Power Discharge Combustion Effects on Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Catalyst Heating

2014-10-13
2014-01-2626
A key element to achieving vehicle emission certification for most light-duty vehicles using spark-ignition engine technology is prompt catalyst warming. Emission mitigation largely does not occur while the catalyst is below its “light-off temperature”, which takes a certain time to achieve when the engine starts from a cold condition. If the catalyst takes too long to light-off, the vehicle could fail its emission certification; it is necessary to minimize the catalyst warm up period to mitigate emissions as quickly as possible. One technique used to minimize catalyst warm up is to calibrate the engine in such a way that it delivers high temperature exhaust. At idle or low speed/low-load conditions, this can be done by retarding spark timing with a corresponding increase in fuel flow rate and / or leaning the mixture. Both approaches, however, encounter limits as combustion stability degrades and / or nitrogen oxide emissions rise excessively.
Journal Article

The NH3 Inhibition Effect in the Standard SCR Reaction over a Commercial Fe-zeolite Catalyst for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2011-04-12
2011-01-1319
Transient and steady-state kinetic data are herein presented to analyze the inhibiting effect of ammonia on the NH₃-SCR of NO at low temperatures over a Fe-zeolite commercial catalyst for vehicles. It is shown that in SCR converter models a rate expression accounting for NH₃ inhibition of the Standard SCR reaction is needed in order to predict the specific dynamics observed both in lab-scale and in engine test bench runs upon switching on and off the ammonia feed. Two redox, dual site kinetic models are developed which ascribe such inhibition to the spill-over of ammonia from its adsorption sites, associated with the zeolite, to the redox sites, associated with the Fe promoter. Better agreement both with lab-scale intrinsic kinetic runs and with engine test-bench data, particularly during transients associated with dosing of ammonia to the SCR catalyst, is obtained assuming slow migration of NH₃ between the two sites.
Journal Article

Cold Start Effect Phenomena over Zeolite SCR Catalysts for Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

2013-04-08
2013-01-1064
NH₃/urea SCR is a very effective and widely used technology for the abatement of NOx from diesel exhaust. The SCR mechanism is well understood and the catalyst behavior can be predicted by mathematical models - as long as operation above the temperature limit for AdBlue® injection is considered. The behavior below this level is less understood. During the first seconds up to minutes after cold start, complete NOx abatement can be observed over an SCR catalyst in test bench experiments, together with a significant increase in temperature after the converter (ca. 100 K). In this work these effects have been investigated over a monolith Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst. Concentration step experiments varying NO, NO₂ and H₂O have been carried out in lab scale, starting from room temperature. Further, the interaction of C₃H₆ and CO with NOx over the SCR has been investigated.
Journal Article

Analysis of Thermodynamic Characteristics of Diesel Engine Emission Control Strategies Using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model

2012-04-16
2012-01-1340
The paper describes a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved combustion model which was developed for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The model relies on the multi zone combustion model (MZCM) approach of Hiroyasu. The main sub-models were taken from literature and extended with additional features described in this paper. A special procedure described in a previous paper is used to identify the mechanisms of the combustion process on the basis of the measured cylinder pressure trace. Based on the identified mechanisms the present work concentrates on the analysis of the causal effects that predominantly control the combustion process and the formation of NOx and Soot. The focus lies on the changes of the thermodynamic states and the composition of the reaction zones caused by different emission control strategies.
Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1296
This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Valve Train Variability in Diesel Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2532
The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Journal Article

Solutions for Emission Robustness of BS VI Phase II Respecting the Market Specific Requirements

2019-01-09
2019-26-0333
Most stringent emission legislations have been implemented in all major markets to improve air quality across the past years. This effects the product cost of the vehicles which is considered being critical and needs to be minimized. India suffers from bad air quality and countermeasures have been defined. One being the implementation of similar emission standards than EU VI. By doing so, India takes a large step going from the currently effective BS IV directly to BS VI. Emission reduction is currently mainly handled by the usage of EGR, thus no engine aftertreatment system has been applied. BS VI will require an aftertreatment (EAS) concept with several catalysts and corresponding control system. India is a very cost sensitive market and a carry over of solutions from the EU needs to be evaluated carefully and new approaches need to be found.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Particle Oxidation Catalyst (POC®) on Particle Emissions of a GDI Car during Transient Engine Operation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0839
Particle emissions have been generally associated to diesel engines. However, spark-ignition direct injection (SI-DI) engines have been observed to produce notable amounts of particulate matter as well. The upcoming Euro 6 legislation for passenger cars (effective in 2014, stricter limit in 2017) will further limit the particulate emissions from SI engines by introducing a particle number emission (PN) limit, and it is not probable that the SI-DI engines are able to meet this limit without resorting to additional aftertreatment systems. In this study, the solid particle emissions of a SI-DI passenger car with and without an installed Particle Oxidation Catalyst (POC®) were studied over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) on a chassis dynamometer and over real transient acceleration situations on road. It was observed that a considerable portion of particle number emissions occurred during the transient acceleration phases of the cycle.
Technical Paper

SCR System Optimization and Control Supported by Simulation Tools

2013-04-08
2013-01-1075
The successful design and especially the control of the SCR system is a challenging process that can be supported by the application of simulation tools. As a first step, we employ physico-chemically informed ‘off-line’ models that are calibrated with the help of targeted small- and full-scale tests. Despite their high level of sophistication, this SCR model is able to be integrated in a control-oriented simulation software platform and connected to other powertrain simulation blocks. The target is to use this simulation platform as a virtual environment for the development and optimization of SCR control strategies. The above process is demonstrated in the case of a passenger car SCR. The model is calibrated at both fresh and aged catalyst condition and validated using experimental data from the engine bench under a wide variety of operating conditions. Next, the calibrated model was coupled with embedded control models, developed for Euro 6 passenger car powertrains.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hybrid Power Trains-Physical Based Modeling for Concept Design

2012-04-16
2012-01-0359
This paper presents a comparison of a hybrid and a conventional powertrain using physical based simulation models on the system engineering level. The system engineering model comprises mechanistic sub-models of the internal combustion engine including exhaust aftertreatment devices, electric components, mechanical drivetrain, thermoregulation system and the corresponding controllers. Essential sub-models are discussed in detail and their interaction on the system level is pointed out. Special attention is paid to compile a real-time capable model by combining mean value air path and drivetrain models with a crank-angle resolved cylinder description and quasi-steady state considerations applied in electrical and cooling networks. A turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine is modeled and calibrated based on steady-state measurements. The conversion performance of a three way catalyst is compared to light-off measurements.
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