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Journal Article

Impact of Cetane Number on Combustion of a Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

Dual-fuel combustion using liquid fuels with differing reactivity has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated efficiency. Varying fractions of gasoline-type and diesel-type fuels enable operation across a range of low- and mid-load operating conditions. Expanding the operating range to cover the full operating range of a heavy-duty diesel engine, while maintaining the efficiency and emissions benefits, is a key objective. With dissimilar properties of the two utilized fuels lying at the heart of the dual-fuel concept, a tool for enabling this load range expansion is altering the properties of the two test fuels - this study focuses on altering the reactivity of the diesel fuel component. Tests were conducted on a 13L six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to run dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection.
Journal Article

Development of Dual-Fuel Low Temperature Combustion Strategy in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Conventional and Alternative Fuels

Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.