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Technical Paper

8 A Study of the Influence of Fuel Temperature on Emission Characteristics and Engine Performance of Compression Ignition Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1777
In this study, the heated fuels were provided to the diesel engine in order to activate the fuel before the injection. Two test fuels: the normal diesel fuel and cetane, which have different boiling points were used. For both normal diesel fuel and cetane, crank angles at ignition and maximum pressure are delayed and the maximum combustion pressure is decreased as the fuel temperature rises. In cases of large and middle mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are decreased when the fuel temperature is higher than 570 [K]. However, in the case of small mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency is almost independent of fuel temperature. HC and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas emission show constant values regardless of fuel temperature. However, NOx concentration is gradually decreased as the fuel temperature rises.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR-Induced Hot Residual Gas on Combustion when Operating a Two-Stroke Engine on Alcohol Fuels

2000-10-16
2000-01-2972
In this research, the effect of high-temperature residual gas, resulting from the application of a certain level of EGR, on combustion was investigated using a two-stroke engine and alcohol fuels (ethanol and methanol) and gasoline as the test fuels. Measurements were made of the light emission intensity of the OH radical on the intake and exhaust port sides of the combustion chamber and of the combustion chamber wall temperature (spark plug washer temperature) and the exhaust gas temperature. Data were measured and analyzed in a progression from normal combustion to autoignited combustion to preignition and to knocking operation.
Technical Paper

A Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Multicomponent Fuel Blends on Supercharged HCCI Combustion

2012-10-23
2012-32-0080
The growing severity of global environmental issues in recent years, including air pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels, has made it necessary for internal combustion engines to achieve higher efficiency and lower exhaust emission levels. Calls for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) necessitate thoroughgoing measures to lower the levels of CO₂ originating in the combustion process of internal combustion engines and to facilitate operation on diverse energy sources. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. These characteristics are obtainable because HCCI combustion can take place at ultra-lean conditions exceeding the limits of flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking in an SI Engine based on In-cylinder: Spectroscopic Measurements and Visualization

2010-09-28
2010-32-0092
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
Technical Paper

A Study of Autoignition Behavior and Knock Intensity in a SI Engine under Different Engine Speed by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

2017-11-05
2017-32-0050
Internal combustion engines have been required to achieve even higher efficiency in recent years in order to address environmental concerns. However, knock induced by abnormal combustion in spark-ignition engines has impeded efforts to attain higher efficiency. Knock characteristics during abnormal combustion were investigated in this study by in-cylinder visualization and spectroscopic measurements using a four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine. The results revealed that knock intensity and the manner in which the autoignited flame propagated in the end gas differed depending on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

An Effect of Bio Diesel Fuel for Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0088
The purpose of this study is to explore an effect of the coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and vegetable oil methyl ester (VME) on a low compression ratio diesel engine performance. CME and VME were produced from coconut oil and vegetable oil with methanol, respectively. Vegetable oil was assumed to contain 60 wt.% of soybean oil and 40 wt.% rapeseed oil. The engine performance was measured in the steady operating condition at 3600 rpm of engine speed. The ignition timings of CME and VME were advanced and the maximum cylinder pressures of CME and VME were higher as compared with the diesel fuel at low compression ratio, because CME and VME consisted of medium chain fatty acid methyl esters. The ignitability of CME was superior to VME, because CME consisted of saturated fatty acid. The brake thermal efficiency of diesel fuel was slightly higher than CME and VME at any compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Speed on Autoignition and Combustion Characteristics in a Supercharged HCCI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0090
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. However, because HCCI engines lack a physical means of initiating ignition, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. Another issue of HCCI engines is that the combustion process causes the cylinder pressure to rise rapidly. The time scale is also important in HCCI combustion because ignition depends on the chemical reactions of the mixture. Therefore, we investigated the influence of the engine speed on autoignition and combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine. A four-stroke single-cylinder engine equipped with a mechanically driven supercharger was used in this study to examine HCCI combustion characteristics under different engine speeds and boost pressures.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0085
This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
Journal Article

Analysis of Interaction between Autoignition and Strong Pressure Wave Formation during Knock in a Supercharged SI Engine Based on High Speed Photography of the End Gas

2017-11-15
2017-32-0119
Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Analysis of Light Absorption and Emission in Preflame Reactions under Knocking Operation

2000-01-15
2000-01-1416
The study deals with the light absorption and emission behavior in the preflame reaction interval before hot flame reactions.(1-3) Absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the behavior of HCHO and OH radicals during a progression from normal combustion to knocking operation. Emission spectroscopic measurements were obtained in the same way that radical added HCO. Radical behavior in preflame reactions was thus examined on the basis of simultaneous measurements, which combined each absorption wavelength with three emission wavelength by using a monochromator and a newly developed polychromator.(4-5) When n-heptane (0 RON) and blended fuel (50 RON) were used as test fuel, it was observed that radical behavior differed between normal combustion and knocking operation and a duration of the preflame reaction was shorter during the progression from normal combustion to a condition of knocking.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Knocking Characteristics of an SI-HCCI Engine by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

2016-11-08
2016-32-0005
In-cylinder visualization of the entire bore area at an identical frame rate was used to investigate knocking conditions under spark ignition (SI) combustion and under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in the same test engine. A frequency analysis was also conducted on the measured pressure signals. The results revealed that a combustion regime accompanied by strong pressure oscillations occurred in both the SI and HCCI modes, which was presumably caused by rapid autoignition with attendant brilliant light emission that took place near the cylinder wall. It was found that the knocking timing was the dominant factor of this combustion regime accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations in both the SI and HCCI combustion modes.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knocking in a Lean Mixture Using an Optically Accessible Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0002
Improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines requires operation under a lean combustion regime and a higher compression ratio, which means that the causes of autoignition and pressure oscillations in this operating region must be made clear. However, there is limited knowledge of autoignition behavior under lean combustion conditions. Therefore, in this study, experiments were conducted in which the ignition timing and intake air temperature (scavenging temperature) of a 2-stroke optically accessible test engine were varied to induce autoignition under a variety of conditions. The test fuel used was a primary reference fuel with an octane rating of 90. The results revealed that advancing the ignition timing under lean combustion conditions also advanced the autoignition timing, though strong pressure oscillations on the other hand tended not to occur.
Technical Paper

Influence of Supercharging and EGR on Multi-stage Heat Release in an HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0009
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Influence of Calcium-Based Additives with Different Properties on Abnormal Combustion in an SI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0007
Technologies for further improving vehicle fuel economy have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, one problem with some approaches is the occurrence of abnormal combustion such as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs under low-speed, high-load operating conditions. One proposed cause of LSPI is that oil droplets diluted by the fuel enter the combustion chamber and become a source of ignition. Another proposed cause is that deposits peel off and become a source of ignition. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine was used in this study to investigate the influence of Ca-based additives having different properties on abnormal combustion by means of in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic measurements. The results obtained for neutral and basic Ca-based additives revealed that the former had an effect on advancing the time of autoignition.
Journal Article

A Study of Ignition Characteristics of an HCCI Engine Operating on a Two-component Fuel

2010-09-28
2010-32-0098
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
Journal Article

Optical Measurement of Autoignition and Combustion Behavior in an HCCI Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0089
In this study, optical measurements were made of the combustion chamber gas during operation of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine in order to obtain a better understanding of the ignition and combustion characteristics. The principal issues of HCCI engines are to control the ignition timing and to optimize the combustion state following ignition. Autoignition in HCCI engines is strongly influenced by the complex low-temperature oxidation reaction process, alternatively referred to as the cool flame reaction or negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Accordingly, a good understanding of this low-temperature oxidation reaction process is indispensable to ignition timing control. In the experiments, spectroscopic measurement methods were applied to investigate the reaction behavior in the process leading to autoignition.
Technical Paper

Influence of Initial Turbulence in RCM on Spontaneous Ignition of End Gas under SI Combustion

2015-09-01
2015-01-1876
The influence of the eddy scale of initial turbulence in RCM on the pressure rise rate after spontaneous ignition of end gas was investigated. The combustion time of the end gas after spontaneous ignition was observed by using high-speed direct photography. As a result, the large scale eddy reduced the pressure rise rate after spontaneous ignition. The temperature inhomogeneity of end gas was higher with the large scale eddy. The combustion time of end gas after spontaneous ignition was prolonged by variation in local ignition delay due to inhomogeneity. The large scale eddy may prevented the knocking occurrence.
Journal Article

A Study of the Behavior of In-Cylinder Pressure Waves under HCCI Knocking by using an Optically Accessible Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1795
This study investigated the origin of knocking combustion accompanied by pressure wave and strong pressure oscillations in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke single cylinder optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The test fuel used was n-heptane. The equivalence ratio and intake temperature were varied to induce a transition from moderate HCCI combustion to extremely rapid HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations. Local autoignition and pressure wave behavior under each set of operating conditions were investigated in detail on the basis of high-speed in-cylinder visualization and in-cylinder pressure analysis. As a result, under conditions where strong knocking occurs, a brilliant flame originates from the burned gas side in the process where the locally occurring autoignition gradually spreads to multiple locations.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter Formation Dynamics as Investigated by Ultra-Accelerated Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics Coupled with Canonical Monte Carlo Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0553
Suppression or reduction of soot emissions is an important goal in the development of automotive engines for environmental and human health purposes. A better understanding at the molecular level of the formation process of soot particles resulting from collision and aggregation of smaller particles made of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) is needed. In addition to experiments, computational methods are efficient and valuable tools for this purpose. As a first step in our detailed computational chemistry study, we applied Ultra-Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (UAQCMD) and Canonical Monte-Carlo (CMC) methods to investigate the nucleation process. The UA-QCMD can calculate chemical reaction dynamics 107 times faster than conventional first principle molecular dynamics methods, while CMC can calculate equilibrium properties at various temperatures, pressures, and chemical compositions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Radical Behavior in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Using Dimethyl Ether

2003-09-16
2003-32-0006
Attention has recently been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as an effective combustion process for resolving issues inherent to the nature of combustion. Dimethyl ether (DME; CH3OCH3) has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. We measured the HCCI process of DME in a test diesel engine by using a spectroscopic method. Simultaneous measurements were also done on exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Based on the experimental data, this paper discusses the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the observed tendencies.
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