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Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurement of OH Radical Emission Behavior Using a 2-Cycle Engine

1997-10-27
978515
The aim of this research was to investigate the mechanism causing autoignition and the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion by detecting the behavior of the OH radical and other excited molecules present in the flame in a spark ignition engine. The test equipment used was a 2-cycle engine equipped with a Schnürle scavenging system. Using emission spectroscopy, the behavior of the OH radical was measured at four locations in the end zone of the combustion chamber. The OH radical plays an important role in the elemental reactions of hydrocarbon fuels. When a certain level of EGR was applied according to the engine operating conditions, the unburned gas became active owing to heat transfer from residual gas near the measurement positions on the exhaust port side and the influence of excited species in the residual gas, and autoignition tended to occur.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Intermediate Combustion Products in Preflame Reactions in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-10-27
978516
The use of a higher compression ratio is desirable for improving the thermal efficiency and specific power of spark-ignition engines, but it gives rise to a problem of engine knock. In the present research, an investigation was made of the role of the preflame reaction region of a spark-ignition engine in the occurrence of autoignition. Emission spectroscopy was used to measure the behavior of formaldehyde (HCHO) in a cool flame. In addition, measure the behavior of the faint light attributed to the HCO radical in a blue flame with the concurrent measurement of the OH radical. The emission waveforms measurements obtained for HCHO when n-heptane (ORON) was used as the fuel, It is thought that these tendencies correspond to the passage and degeneracy of a cool flame. Further, the emission waveforms measured for the HCO radical when blended fuels (6ORON, 8ORON) were correspond to that of a blue flame.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristic of Lean Mixture Ignited by Gas-Oil Injection in High Compression Engine

1997-10-27
978496
We have investigated combustion characteristics of lean gasoline-air pre-mixture ignited by gas-oil injection using a high compression D.I. diesel engine. Gasoline was supplied as an uniform lean mixture by using carburetors, and gas-oil was directly injected into the cylinder. Two different types of combustion chamber were attempted. It was confirmed that the lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 35 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method. An engine with the re-entrant type combustion chamber had an advantage for combustion and ignition. The brake mean effective pressure increased when relatively rich mixture was provided with a small amount of the gas-oil injection. As the gas-oil injection increased, HC concentration decreased, and NO and CO concentration increased. The exhaust gas emission of pollutants could be reduced when lean mixture was ignited by an optimum gas-oil injection.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Characteristics Using Spectroscopic Techniques

2007-07-23
2007-01-1886
The principal issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion that must be addressed include ignition timing control and expansion of the stable operation region. Detailed analyses of ignition and combustion mechanisms must be undertaken to resolve these issues. In this study, spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas state on ignition and combustion characteristics. Spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission intensity and of absorbance at a wavelength corresponding to HCHO (formaldehyde) which plays an important role in the low-temperature reaction (i.e. cool flame). The results revealed that varying the fuel octane number and the residual gas state changed the cool flame magnitude and the duration of the low-temperature reaction period, which substantially altered the ignition characteristics of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Light Emission and Absorption Spectroscopic Study of HCCI Combustion

2009-06-15
2009-01-1846
In this study, light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process in detail, about which there have been many unclear points heretofore. The results made clear the formation behavior and wavelength bands of the chemical species produced during low-temperature reactions. Specifically, with a low level of residual gas, a light emission band was observed from a cool flame in a wavelength range of 370–470 nm. That is attributed to the light emission of formaldehyde (HCHO) produced in the cool-flame reactions. Additionally, it was found that these light emission spectra were no longer observable when residual gas was applied. The light emission spectra of the combustion flame thus indicated that residual gas has the effect of moderating cool-flame reactions.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Mechanism Producing Autoignition in an HCCI Engine Using In-Cylinder Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetic Simulation

2012-10-23
2012-32-0079
This study examined Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics in detail on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization, spectroscopic measurements of light emission and absorption and chemical kinetic simulations. Special attention was focused on investigating and comparing the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas on combustion characteristics. The results made clear the relationship between the production/consumption of formaldehyde (HCHO) in the HCCI autoignition process and flame development behavior in the cylinder. Additionally, it was found that both the fuel octane number and residual gas have the effect of moderating low-temperature oxidation reactions. Furthermore, it was observed that residual gas has the effect of shifting the temperature for the occurrence of the hot flame to a higher temperature range.
Technical Paper

A Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Multicomponent Fuel Blends on Supercharged HCCI Combustion

2012-10-23
2012-32-0080
The growing severity of global environmental issues in recent years, including air pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels, has made it necessary for internal combustion engines to achieve higher efficiency and lower exhaust emission levels. Calls for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) necessitate thoroughgoing measures to lower the levels of CO₂ originating in the combustion process of internal combustion engines and to facilitate operation on diverse energy sources. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. These characteristics are obtainable because HCCI combustion can take place at ultra-lean conditions exceeding the limits of flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio on HCCI Combustion Characteristics using In-cylinder Visualization and Spectroscopic Measurement

2012-10-23
2012-32-0078
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a single-cylinder test engine fitted with a sapphire observation window to facilitate visualization of the entire cylinder bore area. In addition to in-cylinder visualization of combustion, spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission and absorption in the combustion chamber to investigate autoignition behavior in detail. Engine firing experiments were conducted to visualize HCCI combustion over a wide range of compression ratios from 12:1 to 22:1. The results showed that increasing the compression ratio advanced the ignition timing and increased the maximum pressure rise rate, making it necessary to moderate combustion. It was also found that autoignition can be induced even in a mixture lean enough to cause misfiring by raising the intake air temperature so as to advance the overall combustion process.
Journal Article

Optical Measurement of Autoignition and Combustion Behavior in an HCCI Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0089
In this study, optical measurements were made of the combustion chamber gas during operation of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine in order to obtain a better understanding of the ignition and combustion characteristics. The principal issues of HCCI engines are to control the ignition timing and to optimize the combustion state following ignition. Autoignition in HCCI engines is strongly influenced by the complex low-temperature oxidation reaction process, alternatively referred to as the cool flame reaction or negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Accordingly, a good understanding of this low-temperature oxidation reaction process is indispensable to ignition timing control. In the experiments, spectroscopic measurement methods were applied to investigate the reaction behavior in the process leading to autoignition.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking in an SI Engine based on In-cylinder: Spectroscopic Measurements and Visualization

2010-09-28
2010-32-0092
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
Journal Article

A Study of Ignition Characteristics of an HCCI Engine Operating on a Two-component Fuel

2010-09-28
2010-32-0098
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
Journal Article

Influence of Ca-, Mg- and Na-Based Engine Oil Additives on Abnormal Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0771
One issue of downsized and supercharged engines is low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs in the low-speed and high-load operating region. One proposed cause of LSPI is the influence of the engine oil and its additives. However, the effect of engine oil additives on pre-ignition and the mechanism involved are still not fully understood. This study investigated the influence of engine oil additives on abnormal combustion in a spark-ignition engine. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine with a side valve arrangement was used in conducting combustion experiments. The research methods used were in-cylinder pressure analysis, in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic analysis. Engine oil additives were mixed individually at a fixed concentration into a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 50 and their effect on knocking was investigated.
Journal Article

Analysis of Interaction between Autoignition and Strong Pressure Wave Formation during Knock in a Supercharged SI Engine Based on High Speed Photography of the End Gas

2017-11-15
2017-32-0119
Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
Technical Paper

Influences of Compression Ratio and Methane Additive on Combustion Characteristics in a DME-HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3745
In this study, a spectroscopic method was used to measure the combustion characteristics of a test diesel engine when operated on dimethyl ether (DME) under a homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. A numerical analysis was made of the elementary reactions using Chemkin 4.0 to perform the calculations. The results of the analysis showed that compression ratio changes and the methane additive influenced the autoignition timing in the DME-HCCI combustion process. In the experiments, reducing the compression ratio delayed the time of the peak cylinder pressure until after top dead center, thereby increasing the crankshaft output and thermal efficiency. The addition of methane enabled the DME-HCCI engine to provide crankshaft output equivalent to that seen for diesel engine operation at a low equivalence ratio. This paper discusses these effects in reference to the experimental and calculated results.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of HCCI and ATAC Combustion Characteristics Based on Experimentation and Simulations Influence of the Fuel Octane Number and Internal EGR on Combustion

2005-10-24
2005-01-3732
Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion processes can be broadly divided between a CAI process that is applied to four-stroke engines and a CAI process that is applied to two-stroke engines. The former process is generally referred to as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the later process as Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC). The region of stable engine operation differs greatly between these two processes, and it is thought that the elucidation of their differences and similarities could provide useful information for expanding the operation region of HCCI combustion. In this research, the same two-stroke engine was operated under both the ATAC and HCCI combustion processes to compare their respective combustion characteristics. The results indicated that the ignition timing was less likely to change in the ATAC process in relation to changes in the fuel octane number than it was in the HCCI combustion process.
Technical Paper

A Study on Ion Current and OH Radical Luminescence Behavior in a Two-Stroke Engine

2000-01-15
2000-01-1424
In this research, an investigation was made of ion current and OH radical luminescence behavior in the progression from normal combustion to knocking operation. One pair each of an ion probe and a quartz observation window was fitted in the center and on the end of the combustion chamber. The peak values of the ion voltage drop and the OH radical emission intensity both increased as the cylinder head temperature and the cylinder pressure rose. It is possible to understand combustion conditions by analyzing measured waveformes of the ion voltage drop and the OH radical emission intensity.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study Concerning the influence of Hot Residual Gas On Combustion

2000-01-15
2000-01-1419
This research focused on the light emission behavior of the OH radical (characteristic spectrum of 306.4 [nm]) that plays a key role in combustion reactions, in order to investigate the influence of the residual gas on autoignition. Authors also analyzed on the heat release and thermodynamic mean temperature due to research activity state of unburned gas. The test engine used was a 2-stroke, air-cooled engine fitted with an exhaust pressure control valve in the exhaust manifold. Raising the exhaust pressure forcibly recirculated more exhaust gas internally. When a certain level of internal EGR is forcibly applied, the temperature of the unburned end gas is raised on account of heat transfer from the hot residual gas and also due to compression by piston motion. As a result, the unburned end gas becomes active and autoignition tends to occur.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Analysis of Light Absorption and Emission in Preflame Reactions under Knocking Operation

2000-01-15
2000-01-1416
The study deals with the light absorption and emission behavior in the preflame reaction interval before hot flame reactions.(1-3) Absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the behavior of HCHO and OH radicals during a progression from normal combustion to knocking operation. Emission spectroscopic measurements were obtained in the same way that radical added HCO. Radical behavior in preflame reactions was thus examined on the basis of simultaneous measurements, which combined each absorption wavelength with three emission wavelength by using a monochromator and a newly developed polychromator.(4-5) When n-heptane (0 RON) and blended fuel (50 RON) were used as test fuel, it was observed that radical behavior differed between normal combustion and knocking operation and a duration of the preflame reaction was shorter during the progression from normal combustion to a condition of knocking.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Radical Behavior in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Using Dimethyl Ether

2003-09-16
2003-32-0006
Attention has recently been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as an effective combustion process for resolving issues inherent to the nature of combustion. Dimethyl ether (DME; CH3OCH3) has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. We measured the HCCI process of DME in a test diesel engine by using a spectroscopic method. Simultaneous measurements were also done on exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Based on the experimental data, this paper discusses the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the observed tendencies.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knocking Using Ion Current and Light Emission

2003-09-16
2003-32-0038
This study attempted to elucidate combustion conditions in a progression from normal combustion to knocking by analyzing the ion current and light emission intensity that occurred during this transition. With the aim of understanding the combustion states involved, the ion current was measured at two positions in the combustion chamber. Light emission spectroscopy was applied to examine preflame reactions that are observed prior to autoignition in the combustion process of hydrocarbon fuels. The results obtained by analyzing the experimental data made clear the relationship between the ion current and light emission during the transition from normal combustion to knocking operation.
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