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Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Characteristics Using Spectroscopic Techniques

2007-07-23
2007-01-1886
The principal issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion that must be addressed include ignition timing control and expansion of the stable operation region. Detailed analyses of ignition and combustion mechanisms must be undertaken to resolve these issues. In this study, spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas state on ignition and combustion characteristics. Spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission intensity and of absorbance at a wavelength corresponding to HCHO (formaldehyde) which plays an important role in the low-temperature reaction (i.e. cool flame). The results revealed that varying the fuel octane number and the residual gas state changed the cool flame magnitude and the duration of the low-temperature reaction period, which substantially altered the ignition characteristics of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

54 The Combustion Phenomena Under Corona Discharge Application

2002-10-29
2002-32-1823
In this study, the effect of corona discharge on the combustion phenomenon has been made clear. A homogeneous propane-air mixture was used and six equivalence ratios were tested. For generating the positive and negative corona discharge, a non-uniform electric field was applied to the combustion chamber by the needle to plane gap. One or five needle-shaped electrodes were used to change the corona discharge state. When the positive corona discharge was applied, the luminescence from corona with five electrodes was weak as compared with that of one needle-shaped electrode. When the negative corona discharge was applied, the luminescence from corona and combustion were not affected by the number of electrode. When the positive corona discharge was applied by low voltage, the combustion was improved in the case of one needle-shaped electrode, but the index of combustion with one needle-shaped electrode was almost equal to that of five electrodes when the high voltage was applied.
Technical Paper

8 A Study of the Influence of Fuel Temperature on Emission Characteristics and Engine Performance of Compression Ignition Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1777
In this study, the heated fuels were provided to the diesel engine in order to activate the fuel before the injection. Two test fuels: the normal diesel fuel and cetane, which have different boiling points were used. For both normal diesel fuel and cetane, crank angles at ignition and maximum pressure are delayed and the maximum combustion pressure is decreased as the fuel temperature rises. In cases of large and middle mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are decreased when the fuel temperature is higher than 570 [K]. However, in the case of small mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency is almost independent of fuel temperature. HC and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas emission show constant values regardless of fuel temperature. However, NOx concentration is gradually decreased as the fuel temperature rises.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Using a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine with a High Compression Ratio

2006-11-13
2006-32-0043
In this study, it was shown that Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine, operating under the conditions of a high compression ratio, wide open throttle (WOT) and a lean mixture, could be simulated by raising the compression ratio of a 2-stroke engine. On that basis, a comparison was then made with the characteristics of Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC), the HCCI process that is usually accomplished in 2-stroke engines under the conditions of a low compression ratio, partial throttle and a large quantity of residual gas. One major difference observed between HCCI combustion and ATAC was their different degrees of susceptibility to the occurrence of cool flames, which was attributed to differences in the residual gas state. It was revealed that the ignition characteristics of these two combustion processes differed greatly in relation to the fuel octane number.
Technical Paper

The Effects of the Compression Ratio, Equivalence Ratio, and Intake Air Temperature on Ignition Timing in an HCCI Engine Using DME Fuel

2005-10-12
2005-32-0002
Attention has recently been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) as an effective combustion process for resolving the essential nature of combustion. Meanwhile, dimethylether (DME) has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. Authors measured the combustion process of DME HCCI by using a spectroscopic method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. The results of these analyses showed that changes in the compression ratio, intake air temperature and equivalence ratio influenced the ignition timing in the HCCI combustion process. This paper discusses these effects in reference to the experimental and calculated results.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High Voltage Electrical Field on the Flame Propagation

2005-10-12
2005-32-0074
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the development process of hot kernel generated by the laser induced breakdown and to clarify the relationship between corona discharge application and flame propagation. The mixture can be ignited by the laser induced breakdown. Nd:YAG laser is used for the ignition and laser light is optically focused on the central part of combustion chamber by a plano convex lens. The hot kernel is observed in the absence of combustion and is rapidly developed into the laser incidence side. The homogeneous propane-air mixture is used and six equivalence ratios between 0.7 and 1.5 are tested. For generating the positive corona discharge in the combustion chamber, a non-uniform electric field is applied by the needle to plane gap. In a lean mixture, the whole flame front shifts to downward from the breakdown point and, in the rich mixture region, the combustion is strongly enhanced.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of HCCI and ATAC Combustion Characteristics Based on Experimentation and Simulations Influence of the Fuel Octane Number and Internal EGR on Combustion

2005-10-24
2005-01-3732
Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion processes can be broadly divided between a CAI process that is applied to four-stroke engines and a CAI process that is applied to two-stroke engines. The former process is generally referred to as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the later process as Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC). The region of stable engine operation differs greatly between these two processes, and it is thought that the elucidation of their differences and similarities could provide useful information for expanding the operation region of HCCI combustion. In this research, the same two-stroke engine was operated under both the ATAC and HCCI combustion processes to compare their respective combustion characteristics. The results indicated that the ignition timing was less likely to change in the ATAC process in relation to changes in the fuel octane number than it was in the HCCI combustion process.
Technical Paper

Influences of Compression Ratio and Methane Additive on Combustion Characteristics in a DME-HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3745
In this study, a spectroscopic method was used to measure the combustion characteristics of a test diesel engine when operated on dimethyl ether (DME) under a homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. A numerical analysis was made of the elementary reactions using Chemkin 4.0 to perform the calculations. The results of the analysis showed that compression ratio changes and the methane additive influenced the autoignition timing in the DME-HCCI combustion process. In the experiments, reducing the compression ratio delayed the time of the peak cylinder pressure until after top dead center, thereby increasing the crankshaft output and thermal efficiency. The addition of methane enabled the DME-HCCI engine to provide crankshaft output equivalent to that seen for diesel engine operation at a low equivalence ratio. This paper discusses these effects in reference to the experimental and calculated results.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR-Induced Hot Residual Gas on Combustion when Operating a Two-Stroke Engine on Alcohol Fuels

2000-10-16
2000-01-2972
In this research, the effect of high-temperature residual gas, resulting from the application of a certain level of EGR, on combustion was investigated using a two-stroke engine and alcohol fuels (ethanol and methanol) and gasoline as the test fuels. Measurements were made of the light emission intensity of the OH radical on the intake and exhaust port sides of the combustion chamber and of the combustion chamber wall temperature (spark plug washer temperature) and the exhaust gas temperature. Data were measured and analyzed in a progression from normal combustion to autoignited combustion to preignition and to knocking operation.
Technical Paper

Light Emission and Absorption Spectroscopic Study of HCCI Combustion

2009-06-15
2009-01-1846
In this study, light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process in detail, about which there have been many unclear points heretofore. The results made clear the formation behavior and wavelength bands of the chemical species produced during low-temperature reactions. Specifically, with a low level of residual gas, a light emission band was observed from a cool flame in a wavelength range of 370–470 nm. That is attributed to the light emission of formaldehyde (HCHO) produced in the cool-flame reactions. Additionally, it was found that these light emission spectra were no longer observable when residual gas was applied. The light emission spectra of the combustion flame thus indicated that residual gas has the effect of moderating cool-flame reactions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition at High Engine Speeds using a Super Rapid Compression Machine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2403
We had improved RCM and developed a Super Rapid Compression Machine (SRCM) that realizes an extremely rapid compression compared with the conventional RCM. In this study, the performance of the developed SRCM was evaluated. The SRCM was used to investigate on the effects of equivalence ratio on HCCI of n-heptane and iso-octane fuel/air mixture. Experimental results for ignition delay time, τ, and combustion time, t, were obtained from the cylinder pressure histories. The HCCI at high engine speeds was clarified by Optical observation using a high speed camera. As a result, the ignition delay time and combustion time are found to saturate above equivalence ratio of 0.6 at constant compression ratio. In the HCCI combustion in high compression ratio case, shock wave occurs from the core region of the roll-up vortex cause by piston motion. The HCCI combustion has many peaks over a wide range of frequency.
Technical Paper

A Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Multicomponent Fuel Blends on Supercharged HCCI Combustion

2012-10-23
2012-32-0080
The growing severity of global environmental issues in recent years, including air pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels, has made it necessary for internal combustion engines to achieve higher efficiency and lower exhaust emission levels. Calls for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) necessitate thoroughgoing measures to lower the levels of CO₂ originating in the combustion process of internal combustion engines and to facilitate operation on diverse energy sources. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. These characteristics are obtainable because HCCI combustion can take place at ultra-lean conditions exceeding the limits of flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio on HCCI Combustion Characteristics using In-cylinder Visualization and Spectroscopic Measurement

2012-10-23
2012-32-0078
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a single-cylinder test engine fitted with a sapphire observation window to facilitate visualization of the entire cylinder bore area. In addition to in-cylinder visualization of combustion, spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission and absorption in the combustion chamber to investigate autoignition behavior in detail. Engine firing experiments were conducted to visualize HCCI combustion over a wide range of compression ratios from 12:1 to 22:1. The results showed that increasing the compression ratio advanced the ignition timing and increased the maximum pressure rise rate, making it necessary to moderate combustion. It was also found that autoignition can be induced even in a mixture lean enough to cause misfiring by raising the intake air temperature so as to advance the overall combustion process.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Mechanism Producing Autoignition in an HCCI Engine Using In-Cylinder Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetic Simulation

2012-10-23
2012-32-0079
This study examined Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics in detail on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization, spectroscopic measurements of light emission and absorption and chemical kinetic simulations. Special attention was focused on investigating and comparing the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas on combustion characteristics. The results made clear the relationship between the production/consumption of formaldehyde (HCHO) in the HCCI autoignition process and flame development behavior in the cylinder. Additionally, it was found that both the fuel octane number and residual gas have the effect of moderating low-temperature oxidation reactions. Furthermore, it was observed that residual gas has the effect of shifting the temperature for the occurrence of the hot flame to a higher temperature range.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking in an SI Engine based on In-cylinder: Spectroscopic Measurements and Visualization

2010-09-28
2010-32-0092
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
Technical Paper

A Study of Autoignition Behavior and Knock Intensity in a SI Engine under Different Engine Speed by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

2017-11-05
2017-32-0050
Internal combustion engines have been required to achieve even higher efficiency in recent years in order to address environmental concerns. However, knock induced by abnormal combustion in spark-ignition engines has impeded efforts to attain higher efficiency. Knock characteristics during abnormal combustion were investigated in this study by in-cylinder visualization and spectroscopic measurements using a four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine. The results revealed that knock intensity and the manner in which the autoignited flame propagated in the end gas differed depending on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Ignition and Combustion in an SI Engine Using Multistage Pulse Discharge Ignition

2017-11-05
2017-32-0069
Lean-burn technology is regarded as one effective way to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines. However, stable ignition is difficult to ensure with a lean mixture. It is expected that this issue can be resolved by improving ignition performance as a result of increasing the amount of energy discharged into the gaseous mixture at the time of ignition. There are limits, however, to how high ignition energy can be increased from the standpoints of spark plug durability, energy consumption and other considerations. Therefore, the authors have focused on a multistage pulse discharge (MSPD) ignition system that performs low-energy ignition multiple times. In this study, a comparison was made of ignition performance between MSPD ignition and conventional spark ignition (SI). A high-speed camera was used to obtain visualized images of ignition in the cylinder and a pressure sensor was used to measure pressure histories in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

An Effect of Bio Diesel Fuel for Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0088
The purpose of this study is to explore an effect of the coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and vegetable oil methyl ester (VME) on a low compression ratio diesel engine performance. CME and VME were produced from coconut oil and vegetable oil with methanol, respectively. Vegetable oil was assumed to contain 60 wt.% of soybean oil and 40 wt.% rapeseed oil. The engine performance was measured in the steady operating condition at 3600 rpm of engine speed. The ignition timings of CME and VME were advanced and the maximum cylinder pressures of CME and VME were higher as compared with the diesel fuel at low compression ratio, because CME and VME consisted of medium chain fatty acid methyl esters. The ignitability of CME was superior to VME, because CME consisted of saturated fatty acid. The brake thermal efficiency of diesel fuel was slightly higher than CME and VME at any compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Speed on Autoignition and Combustion Characteristics in a Supercharged HCCI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0090
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. However, because HCCI engines lack a physical means of initiating ignition, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. Another issue of HCCI engines is that the combustion process causes the cylinder pressure to rise rapidly. The time scale is also important in HCCI combustion because ignition depends on the chemical reactions of the mixture. Therefore, we investigated the influence of the engine speed on autoignition and combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine. A four-stroke single-cylinder engine equipped with a mechanically driven supercharger was used in this study to examine HCCI combustion characteristics under different engine speeds and boost pressures.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion in an HCCI Engine Using Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharge Assist

2017-11-05
2017-32-0084
This study focused on a non-equilibrium plasma discharge as a means of assisting HCCI combustion.Experiments were conducted with a four-stroke single-cylinder engine fitted with a spark electrode in the top of the combustion chamber for continuously generating non-equilibrium plasma from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke. The results showed that applying non-equilibrium plasma to the HCCI test engine advanced the main combustion period that otherwise tended to be delayed as the engine speed was increased. In addition, it was found that the combined use of exhaust gas recirculation and non-equilibrium plasma prevented a transition to partial combustion while suppressing cylinder pressure oscillations at high loads.
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