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Technical Paper

Trend toward weight reduction of automobile body in Japan

2000-06-12
2000-05-0240
With society demanding automobiles that provide higher fuel efficiency, safety of occupants in collisions and that at the end of their service life can be recycled with low environmental impact, the steel industry is tackling the needs of the automobile industry by developing ever-higher performance steel materials and simulation technologies that can demonstrate the performance of steel materials at the development stage without the need for costly prototype testing. In this paper, weight reduction of automobile body in Japan will be discussed. The main items will be as follows: (1) Development of Automobile Steel Sheets, (2) Materials for Automobile Bodies, (3) Materials and Technologies (Tailored Blanks, Hydroforming and Locally Quenching) for Reducing the Weight of Panels and Reinforcing members, (4) Future Prospects.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion of Automobiles - Field Car and Laboratory Investigation

1993-10-01
932367
In order to clarify the effect of design and materials of the hem as well as the climatic factors on perforation corrosion of the automobile doors, field car and laboratory investigation has been carried out Field car investigation revealed that corrosion of the hem can be minimized by using two side galvanized steel plus adhesives. The ratio of wet/dry environment was evaluated in laboratory on hemmed sample, and it was found that the design of the hem in conjunction with the various wet/dry ratio affected the corrosion rate differently.
Technical Paper

The Corrosion Resistance of Organic Composite-Coated Steel Sheets

1993-10-01
932365
In order to investigate the corrosion resistance of organic composite-coated steel sheets ( OCS ) in a real automotive environment, many kinds of corrosion tests were performed on test pieces and real automotive doors. Tests with a corrosive solution including iron rust were introduced to simulate the real corrosive environment of automotive doors. The relationship between the components of OCS and the corrosion resistance in the rust-including tests was examined. In addition, electrochemical studies were performed. Results indicate OCS has much better corrosion resistance than plated steel sheets with heavier coating weight in all tests. OCS shows excellent corrosion resistance in rust-free corrosive solution, however, some types of OCS do have corrosion concerns in rust-including tests. It became clear that these OCS types have an organic coating with lower cross-linking.
Technical Paper

Formable Ferrite - Degenerated Pearlite Steel (FDP-55) for Automotive Use

1984-02-01
840012
In order to help the gauge reduction of wheels and chassis parts of automobiles, a form-able and weldable hot rolled steel of 550 MPa grade, named FDP-55, has been developed. FDP-55 is an 0.14% C, 0.1% Si, 1.1% Mn and Nb free A1-killed steel obtained by controlled-cooling to a low coiling temperature on a runout table, and it is featured by ferrite-degenerated pearlite microstructure. Results of co-operative works with automotive makers showed that FDP-55 was successful in the application to wheels and chassis parts attaining the large weight reduction. This paper reports the metallurgical features and characteristics of the steel.
Technical Paper

Application of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet for Autobody Structural Parts

1992-02-01
920249
As a demand for vehicles of higher functionality grows, automakers and material suppliers are devoting increasing efforts to develop technologies for greater safety, lighter weight, higher corrosion resistance, and enhanced quietness. The resin-sandwiched vibration damping steel sheet (VDSS), developed as a highly functional material for reducing vehicle vibration and noise, has been used for oil pans1) and compartment partitions2). First applied for a structural dash panel of the new Mazda 929, a Zn-Ni electroplated VDSS which allows direct electric welding has contributed to greater weight reduction as well as improved quietness.
Technical Paper

New Type of Hardenable Hot-Rolled High-Strength Steels

1992-02-01
920250
Two types of TS 450 to 600 MPa grade hot rolled high strength steels have been developed whose strength increases by a post-deformation heat treatment. One is a nitrogen added steel, produced by a low temperature coiling method. This steel shows an increase in tensile strength by about 60 to 90 MPa after a conventional baking treatment. The other is a Cu-bearing steel, produced also by a low temperature coiling method. This steel shows much larger increase in tensile strength by about 200 MPa due to the precipitation hardening of copper, but it requires an additional heat treatment at a relatively high temperature such as 600° C.
Technical Paper

Study of Formable High Strength Steel Sheets for Automotive Panels

1992-02-01
920247
Weight reduction of automobiles is one of the most highlighted subjects in automobile industry from the energy saving and clean environment points of view. A typical approach for the purpose is to use high strength steel sheets as well as optimizing designs and using low density materials. It is not, however, easy to apply high strength steel sheets to automotive panels because of their strict requirement for the shape-fixability although a high dent resistance is also required. Besides the use of bake hardening steels, two different high strength steel sheets, which are a continuously annealed extra-low carbon titanium-added IF steel and a low carbon TRIP steel which contains about six volume% of austenite, were assessed for the application to automotive panels in combination with a tension-controled press-forming technique and showed as good shape-fixability as a conventional box-annealed aluminum-killed DDQ steel sheet when high blank-holding-forces were applied.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 450 N/mm2 Grade Ultra-Low Carbon Sheet Steel for Automotive Panels

1992-02-01
920248
For the automotive exposed panels, several types of 350N/mm2 grade bake-hardenable sheet steel have been developed and actually applied. However for further weight reduction of automotive body panels, especially inner panels, a 450N/mm2 grade sheet steel with excellent formability has been required. For this demand a new 450N/mm2 grade sheet steel has been developed. As the result it was found, that by the co-addition of Mn and P to ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel the recrystallization texture favorable for deep drawability can be formed, accompanied with the increase in tensile strength, when hot band coiled temperature is lower than 773K. In order to improve the property of the 450N/mm2 grade steel, the effect of Si content has been studied. It was found that the deep drawability is not deteriorated by the addition of Si into the Mn and P co-added ultra-low carbon IF-steel.
Technical Paper

Properties of a Newly Developed Organic Composite Coated Steel Sheet for Automotive Use

1992-02-01
920172
The newly developed sheet steel lightly coated with an organic composite is as follows. Zn-Ni alloy plated sheet steel with a coating weight of 30 g/m2 and average Ni concentration of 11.5 ∼12.0 % is chromated through electrolysis. The coating weight of chromate film is 50 ∼90 mg/m2 in Cr. Furthermore, emulsified olefin-acrylic acid copolymer resin mixed with colloidal silica of particle size 7 ∼8 nm applied to a thickness of 1.0 ∼1.8 μm. Olefin-acrylic acid copolymer resin and colloidal silica are mixed at the rate of 100 and 30 (parts by weight). It maintains excellent corrosion resistance even after forming, C-ED paint corrosion resistance and paint adhesion. Furthermore, it has excellent perforation resistance. The product has excellent weldability and is well suited to continuous forming, too.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Hot Rolled High Strength Steel Sheets and Their Formability

1993-03-01
930030
A wider usage of hot rolled high strength steels (HRHSSs) are intensively studied for more complicated underbody structural parts of cars now. With an emphasis placed on the improvement of sheared-edge flangeability, we have developed new types of HRHSSs ranging from 440N/mm2 to 690N/mm2 in ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The microstructure and chemistry of these steels were controlled: The hard second phase in the polygonal ferrite matrix was controlled both by adjusting the chemical composition, mainly, silicon-content, and by applying thermomechanical treatment to a hot strip mill. Compared to conventional high strength steels such as a high-carbon, low-silicon steel and a niobium-bearing steel, various formability-performances of the developed steels were found to be good.
Technical Paper

The Development of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet For Automotive Use

1989-02-01
890708
Vibration Damping Steel Sheet (VDSS) for automotive use, which has a three layer structure of steel/viscoelastic resin/steel, has been studied. For automotive body panels, VDSS is required to have not only high vibration damping capability but also other properties such as bonding strength, formability, weldability and durability. In this research, the effect of resin layer on these properties was studied. It is found that VDSS which satisfies these properties can be made from thermosetting resin involving metal particles.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Experiments and FEM Simulation of High Velocity Tensile Test Methods to Clarify Test Method's Influence of High Strength Steel

2000-10-03
2000-01-2725
In order to examine the compatibility of improvement of crashworthiness with weight-saving of automobiles by using high strength steel, a combination analysis of Finite Element Method and Dynamic Mechanical Properties has been established. The material properties used in this analysis have been measured by “one bar method” high velocity tensile tests, which can examine the deformation behaviour of materials at an actual crash speed range (∼55km/h). As for the accuracy of this system, comparison between experiments and FEM simulation both of this test machine and other high-velocity-tensile-test machines have clarified the feature of one bar method and the metallurgical features of high velocity deformation. It was confirmed that the stress-strain curve measured by the one bar method agreed with that measured by the modified Split Hopkinson pressure bar method.
Technical Paper

High-Strength Cold-Rolled Steels Produced by Continuous Annealing and Their Automotive Applications

1981-02-01
810028
In continuous annealing, accelerated cooling methods have recently found practical application in addition to conventional gas jet cooling or water jet quenching method. Moderate cooling rate of gas jet cooling or accelerated cooling makes it possible to utilize new high-strength steels with excellent properties. The faster cooling rate deteriorates ductility of steels. These newly developed steels are improved rephosphorized steels with high r̄-value and high bake hardenability, dual phase steels with superior ductility, Ti-stabilized high-strength steels with very high r̄-value, grain boundary hardening steels employing low temperature annealing, and unique ultra high-strength steels. This paper describes properties and process factors of these steels, and their applications to automotive.
Technical Paper

Effect of Strengthening Mechanism on Fatigue Properties of Hot-Rolled Sheet Steels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0042
The influence of tensile strength on fatigue strength and the effect of strengthening mechanism on fatigue notch factor were investigated into conventional mild steels, HSLA steels, DP steels and TRIP steels. The grade of studied steels was altered from 440MPa to 780MPa. Not only smooth fatigue specimens with side surface ground and smooth fatigue specimens with laser-cut side surface but also fatigue specimens with a pierced hole were prepared for each of steel sheets. Fatigue tests were conducted in an axial load method. These experiments made it clear that the fatigue limits of smooth specimen increase along the tensile strength approximately independent of strengthening mechanism but those of notched specimen do not necessarily increase along the tensile strength. Namely, fatigue limits of DP steels and TRIP steels with notch increase in proportion to tensile strength although those of HSLA steels with notch do not increase.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Fatigue Strength for Various Kinds of Spot-Welded Test Specimens

1988-02-01
880375
Eight kinds of the spot-welded test specimens were studied to obtain the basic fatigue data on steel sheets for car bodies. Analytical methods such as the strain amplitude at outside and inside plates close to the nugget, the maximum nominal stress and Kθmax criteria of fracture mechanics were used. The authors propose that the ratio of strains at two points around the nugget can provide evaluation of the bending load and estimation of the fatigue strength.
Technical Paper

Bake-Hardenable Al-Killed Steel (RBH-35) for Automobile Body Panels

1982-02-01
820018
In order to attain the gauge reduction of outer body panels without spoiling the dent-resistance and formability, a bake-hardenable Al-killed steel sheet, named RBH-35, and has been developed in the conventional box-annealing process. RBH-35 is an 0.01% carbon, low manganese and rephosphorized Al-killed steel sheet retaining solute carbon of about 10 ppm. The steel exhibits high r-value, bake-hardenability of 40 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of above 350 MPa and substantially non-aging property. Results of stamping test of door outer panel showed that RBH-35 is the most suitable steel sheet for the thinning of outer body panels by about 10%. This paper reports the metallurgical features, mechanical properties and applications of the steel.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Carburizing Steel Bars for Saving Energy Consumption in the Automobile Industry

1982-02-01
820127
Carburizing heat treatment is one of the automobile component manufacturing steps, which consumes a large amount of energy. Raising the carburizing temperature can shorten the carburizing time and save the energy, but involves the risks of grain coarsening and attendant property deterioration. The authors have clarified the precipitation behavior of aluminum nitride (A1N) in the automobile gear manufacturing process and the optimum precipitation of A1N in as-rolled steel bars to prevent the grain coarsening. Through the application of the controlled rolling technique to ensure the optimum precipitation of A1N in continuously cast steel of uniform chemical composition, the authors have substantially saved energy while maintaining high quality, and developed a high-temperature carburizing steel expected to minimize and stabilize quenching strains.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Ni-Zn Alloy Plated Steel Sheet “SZ” and Its Application to Automotive Usages

1982-02-01
820332
Recently, it has become more important to improve the corrosion resistance of automotive body panels, and the amount of coated steel sheets has been increasing for this application. Several types of coated steel sheet, such as Zincrometal, hot-dip galvanized steel sheets, galvannealed steel sheets and electrogalvanized steel sheets are widely available. Sumitomo Metal Industries have studied new coated steel sheets for automotive body panels, and have succeeded in the development of the new NiZn alloy plated product “SZ”, the deposit of which includes about 13% nickel. This paper discusses the plating conditions, production process, properties and performance of SZ.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Selection of High Strength Steel Sheets for Auto-Body Panels

1980-02-01
800369
In search for thinner auto-body panels, investigation has been made on the level of yield strength of high strength steel sheets in view of the fact that the dent resistance must be at least equal to that of today's mild steel panels. Dent resistance should be evaluated for slight dent, and loss of the dent resistance caused by thinning is most remarkably seen in this case. Rephosphorized aluminum killed steel with bake-hardenability is most favourable, taking the necessary resistance to slight dent and the formability into consideration.
Technical Paper

Properties of Zn-Fe Alloy Electroplated Steel Sheets

1984-02-01
840214
We have taken notice of Zn-Fe alloy electroplating with an eye to developing new corrosion-resistant steel sheets for automotive use with both cosmetic corrosion resistance and perforating corrosion resistance, and as a result of investigations into its paintability and corrosion resistance over the whole range of its compositions, we have come to a conclusion that steel sheets with two-layer Zn-Fe alloy electroplating that consists of a thin upper layer with a 75 to 85% Fe content and a lower layer with a 10 to 20% Fe content is the best choice.
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