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Flexible Real-Time Simulation of Truck and Trailer Configurations

2011-12-05
Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Technical Paper

Effects of Driver’s Head Motion and Visual Information on Perception of Ride Comfort

2009-04-20
2009-01-1223
This study investigated the mechanism by which a flat ride is perceived as low-frequency motion during highway driving. Vehicle motion was measured using a GPS receiver and an inertial navigation system. The driver’s head motion relative to the vehicle was measured with a motion capture system consisting of cameras attached to the vehicle. The results of an analysis showed that a flat ride could be quantified based on the amount of absolute head motion. Laboratory tests were also conducted to investigate the effects of motion in the visual field on the perception of ride comfort, and the results showed that perceptions of even the same motion varied depending on the visual conditions, such as the location of the hood, and such differences in motion perception affected the evaluation of a flat ride.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Verify Diagnosis Algorithms of Electronic Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-1043
In modern vehicles the architecture of electronics is growing more and more complex because both the number of electronic functions – e.g. implemented as software modules – as well as the level of networking between electronic control units (ECUs) is steadily increasing. This complexity leads to greater propagation of failure symptoms, and diagnosing the causes of failure becomes a new challenge. Diagnostics aims at detecting failures such as defect sensors or faulty communication messages. It is subdivided into diagnosis algorithms on an ECU and algorithms running offboard, e.g. on a diagnostic tester. These algorithms have to complement each other in the best possible way. While in the past the diagnosis algorithm was developed late in the development process, nowadays there are efforts to start the development of such algorithms earlier – at least in parallel to developing a new feature itself. This would allow developers to verify the diagnosis algorithms in early design stages.
Technical Paper

Load Path Analysis of Vehicle Body Structures under Eigenmode Deformation of Bending Vibration

2009-04-20
2009-01-0770
The load path U* analysis is an effective tool for investigating the load paths in body structures. In the present study, a new index U** is introduced to investigate structures under distributed loading. The new parameter U** is a complementary concept of U*. Although the conventional index U* cannot be applied to cases of distributed loading conditions, the new index U** can be applied to those cases. This paper describes the application of a load path U** analysis to improve efficiently the first eigenvalue of the vertical bending mode in a vehicle body structure model. It also explains how target parts for shape optimization are interpreted on the basis of a load path U** analysis when a load is applied to reproduce the first vertical bending mode.
Technical Paper

Embedded Software Tools Enable Hybrid Vehicle Architecture Design and Optimization

2010-10-19
2010-01-2308
This presentation focuses on several examples of partnerships between tool suppliers and embedded software developers in which state-of-the-art tools are used to optimize a variety of electric and hybrid vehicle architectures. Projects with Automotive OEMs, Tier One Suppliers as well as with academic institutions will be described. Due to the growing complexity in multiple electronic control units (“ECUs”) inter-communicating over numerous network bus systems, combined with the challenge of controlling and maintaining charges for electric motors, vehicle development would be impossible without use of increasingly sophisticated tools. Hybrid drive trains are much more complex than conventional ones, they have at least one degree of freedom more.
Technical Paper

DSP-Based Automotive Sensor Signal Generation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

1994-03-01
940185
Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation is a technology where the actual vehicles, engines or other components are replaced by a real-time simulation in a simulation computer, based on a mathematical model. That simulation reads ECU (Electronic Control Unit) output signals which would normally go to actuators. On the other hand the simulation must output the sensor signals which make the ECU ‘think’ it controls a real system. Generating these signals can be very difficult. Signals may be complex, depend on on-line computed variables, and be required to be output at high timing resolution. This paper describes the problems and presents a solution which employs high-performance Digital Signal Processors (DSP) to generate such signals on-line by Direct-Digital-Synthesis (DDS).
Technical Paper

Behavior Modeling Tools in an Architecture-Driven Development Process - From Function Models to AUTOSAR

2007-04-16
2007-01-0507
This paper will first introduce and classify the basic principles of architecture-driven software development and will briefly sketch the presumed development process. This background information is then used to explain extensions which enable current behavior modeling and code generation tools to operate as software component generators. The generation of AUTOSAR software components using dSPACE's production code generator TargetLink is described as an example.
Technical Paper

Study of Model-based Cooperative Control of EGR and VGT for a Low-temperature, Premixed Combustion Diesel Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2006
A low-temperature, premixed combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, has been developed that reduces emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and smoke simultaneously. This new combustion concept requires heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the NOx emission and combustion noise. However, there is an interaction between the effects of controlling exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and the variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). This makes controlling both the EGR rate and air mass flow rate more difficult under transient operating conditions. Therefore, the authors investigated a cooperative control of EGR and VGT in an effort to control the accuracy of both the EGR rate and the air mass flow rate. This paper presents an approach through the application of a control system CAD program and rapid prototyping tools to improve transient operating states by referring to a model-based EGR and VGT control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Automobile Booming Noise Using Engine Mountings That Have an Auxiliary Vibrating System

1981-02-01
810399
This paper presents a new concept concerning engine mountings that can reduce engine booming noise by utilizing an additional vector. Booming noise in passenger cars, particularly those with a four-cylinder engine, is caused by exciting forces such as the second harmonic of engine intertial force. We have found that exciting forces transmitted from the engine to the body structure through the engine mountings are reduced by adding another vector which cancels out these exciting forces. This new vector can be obtained by using a mass-controlled region of a vibrating system possessing either a single degree or two degrees of freedom. When this optimally designed mechanism is adopted on a small passenger car, booming noise can be significantly reduced.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Networked Electronics at Ford

2005-04-11
2005-01-1658
The number of electrical and electronic components in modern vehicles is constantly growing. Increasingly, functionalities are being distributed across several electronic control units (ECUs). While suppliers themselves are responsible for ensuring that individual ECUs function properly, only the OEM can test distributed functions. Moreover, with the volume of testing steadily growing, automated sequences are absolutely essential. To test electronic networks in the vehicle, Ford Europe is using platform-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation with integrated failure insertion. The company is setting up a uniform, project-independent procedure, from standardized test definition to automated test sequences on a virtual vehicle, right through to structured evaluation.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation of Production Quality Code for ECUs

1999-03-01
1999-01-1168
This paper describes a new production code generator that meets both the requirements of code developers for efficient and reliable production code, as well as the desire of system engineers to establish a control design process based on simulation models that double as executable specifications for the ECU software. The production code generator supports automatic scaling, generates optimized fixed-point C code for microcontrollers like the Motorola 683xx, Siemens C16x, and Hitachi SH-2, and produces ASAP2 [1] calibration information. Benchmark results show that the autogenerated code can match or even exceed the efficiency of typical handwritten production code. Code quality is assured by design and by systematic, automatic, and extremely comprehensive test procedures.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft

2016-09-20
2016-01-2052
This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modeling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the Aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multi-physics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Test of Battery Management Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-1542
The essential task of a battery management system (BMS) is to consistently operate the high-voltage battery in an optimum range. Due to the safety-critical nature of its components, prior testing of a BMS is absolutely necessary. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is a cost-effective and efficient tool for this. Testing the BMS on a HIL test bench requires an electronics unit to simulate the cell voltages and a scalable real-time battery model. This paper describes a HIL system that enables comprehensive testing of BMS components. Hardware and software solutions are proposed for the high requirements of these tests. The individual components are combined to make a modular system, and safety-critical aspects are examined. The paper shows that the system as developed fulfills all the requirements derived from the different test scenarios for BMS systems.
Technical Paper

Automated Real-Time Testing of Electronic Control Units

2007-04-16
2007-01-0504
Today, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is common practice as a testing methodology for electronic control units (ECUs). An essential criterion for the efficiency of an HIL system is the availability of powerful test automation having access to all of its hardware and software components (including I/O channels, failure insertion units, bus communication controllers and diagnostic interfaces). The growing complexity of vehicle embedded systems, which are interconnected by bus systems (like CAN, LIN or FlexRay), result in hundreds or even thousands of tests that have to be done to ensure the correct system functionality. This is best achieved by automated testing. Automated testing usually is performed by executing tests on a standard PC, which is interconnected to the HIL system. However, higher demands regarding timing precision are hard to accomplish. As an example, ECU interaction has to be captured and responded to in the range of milliseconds.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Engine Control Units - A Technical Survey

2007-04-16
2007-01-0500
Due to tougher legislation on exhaust emissions reduction and the consumer demand for more power and mobility and less fuel consumption, the functionality in today's engine management systems continues to grow. The electronic engine control units (ECUs) have to perform more control tasks using new sensors and actuators, along with the corresponding self-diagnostics (OBD, on-board diagnosis). All this leads to continuously increasing demands on automated hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. HIL technology has advanced in parallel to the ECUs, and is today an indispensable tool for developing automotive electronics. This paper therefore aims to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art survey of HIL test systems for engine controllers. First of all, a brief introduction to the ECU's functionality is given.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Vehicle Dynamics Controllers – A Technical Survey

2005-04-11
2005-01-1660
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test benches are indispensable for the development of modern vehicle dynamics controllers (VDCs). They can be regarded as a standard methodology today, because of the extremely safety-critical nature of the multi-sensor and multi-actuator systems used in vehicle dynamics control. The required high quality standards can only be ensured by systematic testing within a virtual HIL environment before going into a real car. This paper aims to provide a condensed technical over-view of state-of-the-art HIL test systems for VDCs, which are currently widely used in passenger cars, in the form of ABS and TCS, as well as ESP, or integrated chassis control, which is just coming onto the market. First, a short introduction to the basic functionality of these types of ECUs is given, and the reasons why HIL testing is necessary and especially useful for VDCs are discussed.
Technical Paper

From Virtual Testing to HIL Testing - Towards Seamless Testing

2014-09-16
2014-01-2165
To make the development of complex aircraft systems manageable and economical, tests must be performed as early as possible in the development process. The test goals are already set in advance before the first hardware for the ECUs exists, to be able to make statements about the system functions or possible malfunctions. This paper describes the requirements on and solutions for test systems for ECUs that arise from these goals. It especially focuses on how a seamless workflow and consistent use of test systems and necessary software tools can be achieved, from the virtual test of ECUs, which exist only as models, up to the test of real hardware. This will be shown in connection with a scalable, fully software-configurable hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) technology. The paper also covers the seamless use of software tools that are required for HIL testing throughout the different test phases, enabling the reuse of work products throughout the test phases.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Systems for Electric Motors in Advanced Powertrain Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0498
Electric drives are growing in importance in automotive applications, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and in the vehicle dynamics area (steering systems, etc.). The challenges of real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation and testing of electric drives are addressed in this paper. In general, three different interface levels between the electric drive and the hardware-inthe-loop system can be distinguished: the signal level (1), the electrical level (2) and the mechanical level (3). These interface levels, as well as modeling and I/O-related aspects of electric drives and power electronics devices, are discussed in detail in the paper. Finally, different solutions based on dSPACE simulator technology are presented, for both hybrid vehicle and steering applications.
Technical Paper

Key Factors for Successful Integration of Automatic Code Generation in Series Production Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0154
Model-based development and autocoding have become common practice in the automotive industry over the past few years. The industry is using these methods to tackle a situation in which complexity is constantly growing and development times are constantly decreasing, while the safety requirements for the software stay the same or even increase. The debate is no longer whether these methods are useful, but rather on the conditions for achieving optimum results with them. From the experiences made during the last decade this paper shows some of the key factors helping to achieve success when introducing or extending the deployment of automatic code generation in a model-based design process.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Two-Zone NOx Emission Simulation in Diesel Engine Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications

2016-09-27
2016-01-8083
Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
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