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Technical Paper

Simultaneous Attainment of Low Fuel Consumption High Output Power and Low Exhaust Emissions in Direct Injection SI Engines

This paper describes simultaneous attainment in improving fuel consumption, output power and reducing HC emissions with a direct injection S.I. engine newly developed in Nissan. Straight intake port is adopted to increase discharge coefficient under WOT operation and horizontal swirl flow is generated by a swirl control valve to provide stable stratified charge combustion under part load conditions. As a result, fuel consumption is reduced by more than 20% and power output is improved by approximately 10%. Moreover, unburned HC is reduced by equivalently 30% in engine cold start condition. An application of diagnostic and numerical simulation tools to investigate and optimize various factors are also introduced.
Journal Article

Status of FCV Development at Nissan and Future Issues

In the “Nissan Green Program 2010”, released in December 2006, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. announced plans to offer advanced technology and products to further real-world reductions in CO2 emissions. One solution is the development of a practical fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In 1996, Nissan began developing an FCV and since 2001, has participated in activities to promote the development and to educate the public on the benefits of fuel cell vehicles by participating in fleet programs in the USA (CaFCP) and in Japan (JHFC). In 2006, limited leasing of the newly-developed 2005 X-TRAIL FCV was initiated in Japan, in the Kanagawa Prefecture and in Yokohama City. In 2007, Nissan provided an X-TRAIL FCV to Kanagawa Toshi Kotsu Ltd., for use as the world's first-ever fuel cell taxi in use on pubric roads. The 2005 X-TRAIL is equipped with various newly-developed technologies, including a fuel cell stack that was engineered by Nissan in-house.
Technical Paper

Technique for Analyzing Swirl Injectors of Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

This paper describes the numerical and experimental approaches that were applied to study swirl injectors that are widely used in direct-injection gasoline engines. As the numerical approach, the fuel and air flow inside an injector was first analyzed by using a two-phase flow analysis method [VOF (Volume of Fluid) model]. A time-series analysis was made of the flow though the injector and also of the air cavity that forms at the nozzle and influences fuel atomization. The calculated results made clear the process from initial spray formation to liquid film formation. Spray droplet formation was then analyzed with the synthesized spheroid particle (SSP) method. As the experimental approach, in order to measure the cavity factor that represents the liquid film thickness, nozzle exit flow velocities were measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV).