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Technical Paper

Improvement of Lambda Control Based on an Exhaust Emission Simulation Model that Takes into Account Fuel Transportation in the Intake Manifold

This paper presents an improved exhaust emission simulation model that takes into account fuel transportation behavior in order to obtain more precise air-fuel ratio control, which is needed to meet stringent exhaust emission standards. This simulation model is based on experimental formulas for air and fuel behavior in the intake manifold, especially during transient engine operation. Fuel behavior, including the effect of wall flow on the air-fuel ratio, is obtained analytically. Predictions are then made of the exhaust emissions from a car operated under official driving schedules. The new simulation model is a useful tool in the design and development of fuel supply control systems. An outline of the new model is presented first along with a comparison of the calculated and experimental results. The air-fuel ratio control strategy derived with this model is then described.
Technical Paper

Effect of Catalyst Systems on Characteristics of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Species

The California Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards mandate a reduction in non-methane organic gases (NMOG). With the aim of analyzing NMOG emissions, a comparison was made of the hydrocarbon species found in the exhaust gas when different types of catalyst systems and fuel specifications were used. NMOG emissions are usually measured by removing methane from the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions and adding aldehyde and ketone emissions. The NMOG level found in this way is thus influenced by the rate of methane in THC emissions. Another important factor in the LEV standards is specific reactivity (SR), indicating the formation potential of ozone, which is one cause of photochemical smog. Specific reactivity is expressed by the amount of ozone generated per unit weight of NMOG emissions, and is affected by the respective proportion of hydrocarbon species in the total NMOG emissions.