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Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine System with DPF for the European Market

2007-04-16
2007-01-1061
Nissan Motor has put on the European SUV market a 2.2-L direct-injection diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system that complies with the EURO IV emission regulations. This paper describes the DPF system, cooperative control of a variable geometry turbo (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high-accuracy lambda control adopted for this engine. In order to achieve a compact DPF, the high-accuracy lambda control was developed to reduce variation in engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions. Moreover, the accuracy of the technique for predicting the quantity of PM accumulation was improved for reliable detection of the DPF regeneration. Prediction error for PM accumulation increases during transient operation. Control logic was adopted to correct the PM prediction according to lambda fluctuation detected by an observer for lambda at cylinder under transient operating conditions. The observer is corrected lambda sensor output.
Technical Paper

Development of a Slip Control System for a Lock-Up Clutch

2004-03-08
2004-01-1227
Lock-up operation of an automatic transmission is known as one good method of improving fuel economy. However, locking up the transmission at low vehicle speeds can often cause undesirable vibration or booming noise. Slip control of the lock-up clutch can resolve these problems, but the speed difference of the lock-up clutch needs to be controlled at a certain value. This control system has to overcome large changes in the parameters of the lock-up system at low vehicle speeds and also changes with regard to the speed ratio in a continuously variable transmission (CVT). In this study, this complex non-linear system has been modeled as a first-order linear parameter varying (LPV) system. A robust control algorithm was applied taking various disturbances into account to design a new slip lock-up control system.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1062
Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-03-25
2013-01-0009
Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation. Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer.
Technical Paper

Application of Background Light Elimination Technique for Lane Marker Detection

2013-03-25
2013-01-0085
An active vision system equipped with a high-speed pulsed light-emitting projector and a high-speed image sensor is proposed and applied to lane marker detection in this paper. The proposed system has the capability to suppress image information obtained from the background light and provides only the image information from the signal light emitted by the projector. This is accomplished by synchronizing image capture with the time of signal light emission. To reduce the power consumption and cost of the system, a relatively low intensity projector is used as the light source. The background illuminance on a bright day can be much higher than that of the signal. To improve the signal-to-background ratio, the signal light is modulated using a pulse width modulation technique. Then, the image is captured using a high-speed camera operating in synchronization with the time the signal light is emitted.
Technical Paper

Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2246
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
Journal Article

Connected Vehicle Accelerates Green Driving

2010-10-19
2010-01-2315
After the turn of the century, growing social attention has been paid to environmental concerns, especially the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and it comes down to a personal daily life concern which will affect the purchasing decision of vehicles in the future. Among all the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the transportation industry is the primary target of reduction and almost every automotive company pours unprecedented amounts of money to reengineer the vehicle technologies for better fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emission. Besides those efforts paid for sheer improvements of genuine vehicle technologies, NISSAN testified that “connectivity” with outside servers contributed a lot to reduce fuel consumption, thus the less emission of GHG, with two major factors; 1. detouring the traffic congestions with the support of probe-based real-time traffic information and 2. providing Eco-driving advices for the better driving behavior to prompt the better usage of energy.
Technical Paper

Challenges of Widespread Marketplace Acceptance of Electric Vehicles -- Towards a Zero-Emission Mobility Society

2010-10-19
2010-01-2312
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oil Film Generation on the Main Journal Bearing Using a Thin-Film Sensor and Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-1217
Reducing friction in the crankshaft main bearings is an effective means of improving the fuel efficiency of reciprocating internal combustion engines. To realize these improvements, it is necessary to understand the lubricating conditions, in particular the oil film pressure distributions between crankshaft and bearings. In this study, we developed a thin-film pressure sensor and applied it to the measurement of engine main bearing oil film pressure in a 4-cylinder, 2.5 L gasoline engine. This thin-film sensor is applied directly to the bearing surface by sputtering, allowing for measurement of oil film pressure without changing the shape and rigidity of the bearing. Moreover, the sensor material and shape were optimized to minimize influence from strain and temperature on the oil film pressure measurement. Measurements were performed at the No. 2 and 5 main bearings.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies on a Natural Gas Vehicle

1994-10-01
942005
This paper presents the results of several studies conducted on a natural gas vehicle. In one study of engine-out emissions performance, the exhaust emissions of the CNG engine were lower than those of the base gasoline engine. In another study of the conversion characteristics of three-way catalysts, it was found that the conversion efficiency of total hydrocarbons (THCs) was much lower in the lean-mixture region for the NGV. The reduced efficiency was traced to lower conversion and poor reactivity of low-end hydrocarbons and to a higher concentration of H2O.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lubricant for Retrofitting Automotive Air Conditioners for Use with HFC-134a

1994-03-01
940594
This paper presents a new refrigeration lubricant for use with the HFC-134a retrofit refrigerant in automotive air-conditioning systems originally designed to use the CFC-12 refrigerant, one of the regulated CFCs scheduled to be phased out. This new retrofit lubricant provides high lubricity and excellent performance characteristics as a result of adopting a newly developed PAG base oil with a block polymer structure and a new antiwear additive formulation. In retrofit systems, it assures sufficient durability for wobble-plate-type variable displacement compressors, which experience severe lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

1995-02-01
950807
In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

Practical Challenges on Yokohama Mobility “Project ZERO” - Towards next generation mobility for low-carbon future

2010-10-19
2010-01-2346
Reduction of greenhouse gases or CO2 is the global issue for sustainability. City of Yokohama, where 3.7 million people live, established the Yokohama Climate Change Action Policy “CO-DO30”, aiming to cut down on greenhouse gas emissions by over 30% per person by 2025, and by over 60% by 2050. “CO-DO30” includes 7 areas of approaches, such as Living, Businesses, Buildings, Transportation, Energies, Urban and Green, and City Hall. To achieve this challenging target, practical and effective action on transportation area is definitely required, because it emits 20% of total greenhouse gas emission in the city. In 2008, City of Yokohama and Nissan jointly started YOKOHAMA Mobility “Project ZERO” (YMPZ), a 5-year project aimed at realizing “Eco-Model City, Yokohama”.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 5.6 L V8 Gasoline Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1320
This paper describes the new VK56VD engine, which was developed in response to growing demand for cleaner automobiles, better fuel economy, and improved engine performance. A 5.6 L V8 engine, the VK56VD will go into the new Infiniti M56 premium sport luxury sedan. To boost power and efficiency and lessen its environmental impact, this engine will utilize key technologies such as Continuous Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) and Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG). Details of the VK56VD are presented here along with highlights of the applied technologies and the development means.
Technical Paper

A New Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model Applicable to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0544
Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Functional Design of a Motor Integrated CVT for a Parallel HEV

1999-03-01
1999-01-0753
We succeeded in developing a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a fuel efficiency in the 10-15 mode more than double that of existing vehicles of the same class of driving performance. A prominent feature of this HEV system is the belt-drive continuously variable transmission (CVT) with built-in traction motor and powder clutch. Adopting a more efficient configuration proved effective in minimizing cost increases and loss of space utility and offered the same reliability provided by existing vehicles. This paper discusses the functional design aspects of the parallel HEV system, which holds great promise for viable mass production.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Control Algorithm for an SI Engine and a CVT

1999-03-01
1999-01-0752
A new integrated control system has been developed for controlling an SI engine and a CVT proactively so as to obtain the demanded drive torque most efficiently. Taking into account ease of calibration, a control system configuration has been achieved that determines the CVT ratio from the target drive torque and vehicle speed, based on the steady-state relationship between the demanded drive torque and the vehicle speed, gear ratio, engine torque and fuel economy. An analysis was made of drive torque characteristics while the ratio was changing under transient conditions. The results showed that using engine torque to compensate for the ratio change response lag and inertia torque, which is proportional to the differential of the gear ratio, is effective in improving drive torque responsiveness.
Technical Paper

Economical Matching of the Thermal Reactor to Small Engine-Low Emission Concept Vehicles

1972-02-01
720484
The Inter-Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Program included the thermal reactor as one of the effective ways of oxidizing HC and CO in the exhaust system. However, this was accompanied by very substantial fuel economy penalties, especially in the case of small engine-low emission concept vehicles. Starting with a new concept aimed at obtaining the HC/CO oxidizing trigger temperature in the thermal reactor by modifying engine settings, the authors arrived at an economical technique of matching the thermal reactor to the engine.
Technical Paper

NVH Development of a High Torque SUV Using a Novel Active Torque Rod System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0685
During the last decade, fuel economy mandates (CAFE regulations) have driven engine downsizing and down-speeding trends. More recently, downsized turbos are percolating down to heavier SUVs and trucks. Larger/heavier vehicles require high torque engines to provide attractive dynamic performance. While higher torque requirements can be satisfied with new innovations like the variable compression engine, larger and more upscale vehicles also need to deliver higher quietness requirements. For this, the vibration control system for combustion induced forces with high torque engines become very important. To address both dynamic performance and quietness requirements, active engine mounts have been previously adopted, however challenges for light-weighting, downsizing, and costs have still persisted.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
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