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Technical Paper

Prediction of cooling flow rate through the front grille using flow analysis with a multi-level mesh system

A flow analysis method with quick turnaround time has been studied for application to flows in the engine compartment of vehicles. In this research, a rapid modeling method based on the Cartesian mesh system was developed to obtain flow field information quickly. With this modeling method, the original shape is approximated by many small cubic cells, allowing automatic mesh generation in significantly less time. Moreover, a hierarchical mesh system that reduces the total number of meshes has been introduced. This multi-level mesh system is also highly capable of representing shapes in detail. Another important issue in flow calculations in the engine bay is the treatment of the boundary conditions such as the radiator and cooling fan. With the proposed method, the fluid dynamics characteristics of such components are measured, and characteristics such as the pressure loss/gain and the rotational vector of the fan are reflected in the flow field as empirical models.
Technical Paper

Toward the Environmentally-Friendly Small Engine: Fuel, Lubricant, and Emission Measurement Issues

Small engines which are friendly toward the environment are needed all over the world, whether the need is expressed in terms of energy efficiency, useful engine life, health benefits for the user, or emission regulations enacted to protect a population or an ecologically-sensitive area. Progress toward the widespread application of lower-impact small engines is being made through engine design, matching of engine to equipment and task, aftertreatment technology, alternative and reformulated fuels, and improved lubricants. This paper describes three research and development projects, focused on the interrelationships of fuels, lubricants, and emissions in Otto-cycle engines, which were conducted by Southwest Research Institute. All the work reported was funded internally as part of a commitment to advance the state of small engine technology and thus enhance human utility.
Technical Paper

Research Concentrated on An Experimental Method for Protecting Pedestrians

This paper describes a test procedure in which a dummy and a sled impact tester are used to simulate vehicle-pedestrian accidents for the purpose of investigating pedestrian protection. In the series of tests conducted, the bumper height, hood-edge height, bumper lead, front-end compliance of the vehicle, impact velocity, and other factors were varied in an effort to clarify to what extent modifications to the vehicle front end would contribute to enhanced pedestrian protection. Preliminary test findings obtained with this test procedure are also presented regarding the effects of the front-end shape of the vehicle and the stance of the dummy at the moment of impact.
Technical Paper

Development of Microalloyed Steel for Fracture Split Connecting Rod

In Europe and the U.S., fracture split connecting rods are used in many types of current engines. This process can eliminate the machining of crankshaft end and eliminate the dowel pin for positioning. The most important key for fracture split connecting rods is a reduction in the plastic deformation during the fracture splitting process. For this reason, sinter-forged materials and pearlitic steels (C70S6) are used for fracture split connecting rods because of their low ductility. Such types of steel, however, are inferior to the hot forged microalloyed steels typically used as connecting rod material in Japan in terms of buckling strength and machinability although they are easier to fracture split. On the other hand, the conventional microalloyed steels used for connecting rods in Japan are not suitable for fracture splitting. The reason is that these steels have too much ductility and associated plastic deformation for fracture splitting.
Technical Paper

Development of a Slip Control System for a Lock-Up Clutch

Lock-up operation of an automatic transmission is known as one good method of improving fuel economy. However, locking up the transmission at low vehicle speeds can often cause undesirable vibration or booming noise. Slip control of the lock-up clutch can resolve these problems, but the speed difference of the lock-up clutch needs to be controlled at a certain value. This control system has to overcome large changes in the parameters of the lock-up system at low vehicle speeds and also changes with regard to the speed ratio in a continuously variable transmission (CVT). In this study, this complex non-linear system has been modeled as a first-order linear parameter varying (LPV) system. A robust control algorithm was applied taking various disturbances into account to design a new slip lock-up control system.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oil Film Generation on the Main Journal Bearing Using a Thin-Film Sensor and Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) Model

Reducing friction in the crankshaft main bearings is an effective means of improving the fuel efficiency of reciprocating internal combustion engines. To realize these improvements, it is necessary to understand the lubricating conditions, in particular the oil film pressure distributions between crankshaft and bearings. In this study, we developed a thin-film pressure sensor and applied it to the measurement of engine main bearing oil film pressure in a 4-cylinder, 2.5 L gasoline engine. This thin-film sensor is applied directly to the bearing surface by sputtering, allowing for measurement of oil film pressure without changing the shape and rigidity of the bearing. Moreover, the sensor material and shape were optimized to minimize influence from strain and temperature on the oil film pressure measurement. Measurements were performed at the No. 2 and 5 main bearings.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology in Studying Lubricant Chemistry to Enhance Bearing and Ring Wear Control in an Operating Engine

Radioactive tracer technology (RAT) is an important tool in measuring component wear in an operating engine on a real-time basis. This paper will discuss the use of RAT to study and evaluate boundary lubricant and surfactant chemistries aimed at providing benefits in wear control. In particular, RAT was employed to study ring and bearing wear as a function of engine operating condition (speed, load, and temperature) and lubricant characteristics. Prior to testing, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings were subjected to bulk thermal neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that were separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces. The irradiated parts were installed in the test engine, after which testing to a specific test matrix was accomplished.
Technical Paper

Turbulence and Cycle-by-Cycle Variation of Mean Velocity Generated by Swirl and Tumble Flow and Their Effects on Combustion

Combinations of swirl flow and tumble flow generated by 13 types of swirl control valve were tested by using both impulse steady flow rig and LDV. Comparison between the steady flow characteristics and the result of LDV measurement under motoring condition shows that tumble flow generates turbulence in combustion chamber more effectively than swirl flow does, and that swirling motion reduces the cycle by cycle variation of mean velocity in combustion chamber which tends to be generated by tumbling motion. Performance tests are also carried out under the condition of homogeneous charge. Tumble flow promotes the combustion speed more strongly than expected from its turbulence intensity measured by LDV. It is also shown that lean limit air fuel ratio does not have a strong relation with cycle variation of mean velocity but with turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Mount Optimization Method Using Modal Parameters

The purpose of this study was to develop a simple optimization method for use in designing vibration insulators. With this method, stiffness, location and inclination of each insulator are used as design parameters. A performance index consisting of vehicle modal parameters expressed as eigenvalues and eigenvectors has been constructed to evaluate low-frequency idle/shake performance and higher frequency vibration performance involving road/engine inputs. Using this performance index and the sensitivity of the modal parameters, a designer can easily find a suitable direction for optimizing mount performance and thereby obtain a stable solution. The new method was employed to optimize an engine mount system. Experimental data obtained on the system validated the accuracy of the calculated results and showed an improvement in idle/shake performance. This method is a useful tool in designing optimum vibration insulators.
Technical Paper

Noise Benchmarking of the Detroit Diesel DD15 Engine

Several new or significantly upgraded heavy duty truck engines are being introduced in the North American market. One important aspect of these new or revised engines is their noise characteristics. This paper describes the noise related characteristics of the new DD15 engine, and compares them to other competitive heavy truck engines. DD15 engine features relevant to noise include a rear gear train, isolated oil pan and valve cover, and an amplified high pressure common rail fuel system. The transition between non-amplified and amplified common rail operation is shown to have a significant noise impact, not unlike the transition between pilot injection and single shot injection in some other engines.
Technical Paper

Observations from Cylinder Liner Wear Studies in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines and the Evolution towards Lower Viscosity Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants

Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
Journal Article

The Role of EGR in PM Emissions from Gasoline Engines

A dilute spark-ignited engine concept has been developed as a potential low cost competitor to diesel engines by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), with a goal of diesel-like efficiency and torque for light- and medium-duty applications and low-cost aftertreatment. The targeted aftertreatment method is a traditional three-way catalyst, which offers both an efficiency and cost advantage over typical diesel aftertreatment systems. High levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) have been realized using advanced ignition systems and improved combustion, with significant improvements in emissions, efficiency, and torque resulting from using high levels of EGR. The primary motivation for this work was to understand the impact high levels of EGR would have on particulate matter (PM) formation in a port fuel injected (PFI) engine. While there are no proposed regulations for PFI engine PM levels, the potential exists for future regulations, both on a size and mass basis.
Journal Article

Study on a High Torque Density Motor for an Electric Traction Vehicle

A compact and high performance electric motor, called the 3D motor and designed to achieve output torque density of 100 Nm/L, was developed for use on electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The motor adopts an axial flux configuration, consisting of a disk-shaped stator sandwiched between two disk-shaped rotors with permanent magnets. It also adopts 9-phase current with a fractional slot combination, both of which increase the torque density. The rated torque output of this high power-density motor is achieved by applying a hybrid cooling system comprising a water jacket on the outer case of the stator and oil dispersion into the air gaps. The mechanical strength of the rotors against centrifugal force and that of the stator against torque exertion were confirmed in mechanical experiments. Several measures such as flux barriers, a chamfered rotor rim, parallel windings, and radially laminated cores were adopted to suppress losses.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Reformate Production in a D-EGR Engine

Dedicated EGR has shown promise for achieving high efficiency with low emissions [1]. For the present study, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine which was modified to a D-EGR configuration was used to investigate the impact of valve phasing and different injection strategies on the reformate production in the dedicated cylinder. Various levels of positive valve overlap were used in conjunction with different approaches for dedicated cylinder over fueling using PFI and DI fuel systems. Three speed-load combinations were studied, 2000 rpm 4 bar IMEPg, 2000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg, and 4000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg. The primary investigation was conducted to map out the dedicated cylinders' performance at the operating limits of intake and exhaust cam phasing. In this case, the limits were defined as conditions that yielded either no reformate benefit or led to instability in the dedicated cylinder.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cold Start Technologies on a 3L Diesel Engine

Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require that modern diesel aftertreatment systems must warm up and begin controlling emissions shortly after startup. While several new aftertreatment technologies have been introduced that focus on lowering the aftertreatment activation temperature, the engine system still needs to provide thermal energy to the exhaust for cold start. A study was conducted to evaluate several engine technologies that focus on improving the thermal energy that the engine system provides to the aftertreatment system while minimizing the impact on fuel economy and emissions. Studies were conducted on a modern common rail 3L diesel engine with a custom dual loop EGR system. The engine was calibrated for low engine-out NOx using various combustion strategies depending on the speed/load operating condition.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Valvetrain Wear Test - The Sequence IVB Test

The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles

A new generation of vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies are being developed to leverage information streams enabled via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. While algorithms that use these connected information streams to enable improvements in energy efficiency are being studied in detail, methodologies to quantify and analyze these improvements on a vehicle have not yet been explored fully. A procedure to test and accurately measure energy-consumption benefits of a connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is presented. The first part of the test methodology enables testing in a controlled environment. A traffic simulator is built to model traffic flow in Fort Worth, Texas with sufficient accuracy. The benefits of a traffic simulator are two-fold: (1) generation of repeatable traffic scenarios and (2) evaluation of the robustness of control algorithms by introducing disturbances.