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Technical Paper

New Four Valves Per Cylinder Basic Engine for Passenger Car

1987-11-08
871177
Through the experience in developing several 4-valve sporty engines, we have had an idea that 4-valve technology regarded as one of sporty engines may be applied to a standard engine of a passenger car. Making use of the superior characteristics of 4-valve technology, combustion chamber design and valve train system were completely refined for a standard engine. Higher torque in low to middle speed range and good fuel economy, important features in practical use, were pursued as the prior target of development. As a passenger car engine, comfortable sound in passenger compartment is an important feature as well as high performance and good fuel economy. With these concepts, we have developed the 3S-FE, 2-liter, 4-valve engine which has achieved 5.1& torque, 18.6% horse power and 9.7% Fuel consumption (highway mode) gains compared with the original 2S-E, 2-liter, 2-valve engine.
Technical Paper

Poisoning Deactivations of Automotive Catalysts by Lead and Phosphorus

1985-11-11
852219
The deactivation process of automotive catalysts by lead and phosphoruos were studied. The accelerated poisoning test were performed. The activity evaluation and characterisation of poisoned pellet oxidation catalysts showed the following origin of poisoning deactivations. Lead interacts with active materials and phosphorus covers over catalysts to reduce these catalytic performance. In the case of phosphorus and lead co-existence, the activity decreases rapidly because leadphosphate plugges pores of the support. In monolithic catalysts, highly axial distributions of poisons was obserbed. This characteristic distribution is advantageous for the durability of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine System with DPF for the European Market

2007-04-16
2007-01-1061
Nissan Motor has put on the European SUV market a 2.2-L direct-injection diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system that complies with the EURO IV emission regulations. This paper describes the DPF system, cooperative control of a variable geometry turbo (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high-accuracy lambda control adopted for this engine. In order to achieve a compact DPF, the high-accuracy lambda control was developed to reduce variation in engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions. Moreover, the accuracy of the technique for predicting the quantity of PM accumulation was improved for reliable detection of the DPF regeneration. Prediction error for PM accumulation increases during transient operation. Control logic was adopted to correct the PM prediction according to lambda fluctuation detected by an observer for lambda at cylinder under transient operating conditions. The observer is corrected lambda sensor output.
Technical Paper

Carbon Dioxide Measuring Technology in Engine Combustion Chambers

2004-03-08
2004-01-1340
The authors have developed an instrument that measures the CO2 concentration in engine combustion chambers using the infrared absorption method. The characteristics of this technology are as follows: 1 Measuring can be carried out while the engine is running at 600r/min to more than 3000r/min, full load operation. (Applicable to all EGR conditions) 2 Quick response; 2ms 3 High linearity; ±1% Full Scale and under (FS: 10%) 4 No aggravation is caused to the intake/exhaust performance of engines This technology contributes to the improvement of the in-cylinder EGR system using, for instance, a variable valve-timing mechanism that is now expanding in number of applications, and also the conventional EGR system.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid System for Compact Class Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1332
Toyota has been evolving a hybrid system since introducing the first mass-production hybrid vehicle in 1997 in response to the increasing automotive-related issues of CO2 emissions, energy security, and urban air pollution. This paper describes a newly developed hybrid system design and its performance. This system was developed with the main purpose to improve fuel consumption, especially for better real world fuel consumption; and to enhance its compatibility with multiple vehicle adoption by downsizing and reducing the weight of its components. At the same time, the hybrid system achieved improved power performance while satisfying stringent emission regulations in the world.
Technical Paper

Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-03-25
2013-01-0009
Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation. Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer.
Technical Paper

Experimental Efficiency Characterization of an Electrically Assisted Turbocharger

2013-09-08
2013-24-0122
Electrically assisted turbochargers consist of standard turbochargers modified to accommodate an electric motor/generator within the bearing housing. Those devices improve engine transient response and low end torque by increasing the power delivered to the compressor. This allows a larger degree of engine down-sizing and down-speeding as well as a more efficient turbocharger to engine match, which translates in lower fuel consumption. In addition, the electric machine can be operated in generating mode during steady state engine running conditions to extract a larger fraction of the exhaust energy. Electric turbocharger assistance is therefore a key technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper an electrically assisted turbocharger, designed to be applied to non-road medium duty diesel engines, is tested to obtain the turbine and electrical machine efficiency characteristics.
Journal Article

Connected Vehicle Accelerates Green Driving

2010-10-19
2010-01-2315
After the turn of the century, growing social attention has been paid to environmental concerns, especially the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and it comes down to a personal daily life concern which will affect the purchasing decision of vehicles in the future. Among all the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the transportation industry is the primary target of reduction and almost every automotive company pours unprecedented amounts of money to reengineer the vehicle technologies for better fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emission. Besides those efforts paid for sheer improvements of genuine vehicle technologies, NISSAN testified that “connectivity” with outside servers contributed a lot to reduce fuel consumption, thus the less emission of GHG, with two major factors; 1. detouring the traffic congestions with the support of probe-based real-time traffic information and 2. providing Eco-driving advices for the better driving behavior to prompt the better usage of energy.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies on a Natural Gas Vehicle

1994-10-01
942005
This paper presents the results of several studies conducted on a natural gas vehicle. In one study of engine-out emissions performance, the exhaust emissions of the CNG engine were lower than those of the base gasoline engine. In another study of the conversion characteristics of three-way catalysts, it was found that the conversion efficiency of total hydrocarbons (THCs) was much lower in the lean-mixture region for the NGV. The reduced efficiency was traced to lower conversion and poor reactivity of low-end hydrocarbons and to a higher concentration of H2O.
Technical Paper

New Technology for Reducing the Power Consumption of Electrically Heated Catalysts

1994-03-01
940464
A new heating strategy for electrically heated catalysts has been developed which reduces power consumption while achieving the desired hydrocarbon conversion. The relationship between catalyst volume and power consumption is presented. Observations of catalytic reactions by a thermoviewer camera and mathematical simulations are used to optimize the heating pattern. Significant reductions in power consumption, while maintaining conversion efficiency, are reported by heating only the front face of the catalyst. However, prior to mass production additional work is required to improve durability, and reliability and to resolve manufacturing issues.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalyst with Using Only Pd as Activator

1995-02-01
950257
The Pd only three-way catalyst with Rh as an activator completely removed has been developed. The catalyst has been improved with regards to its thermal stability and its NOx reduction capability in the fuel rich region. These two factors have been known as the weak points of Pd catalyst. The thermal stability of the Pd catalyst was improved by modifying the washcoat alumina to yield a higher thermal stability. On the other hand, the NOx reduction capability was controlled by adding a combination of La and Ba. The developed Pd only three-way catalyst demonstrated the equivalent performance to a current production Pt/Rh catalyst after engine dynamometer aging up to 800°C.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Three-Way Catalyst for Automotive Lean-Burn Engines

1995-02-01
950809
A new 3-way catalyst with NOx conversion performance for lean-burn engines has been developed. The catalyst oxidizes NOx and stores the resulting nitrate, which is then reduced by HC and CO during engine operation around the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. Both the composition of the storage component and the particle sizes of the noble metal were optimized. In addition, a special air fuel mixture control has been developed to make the best of the NOx storage-reduction function. The present catalyst showed 90% conversion efficiency and improved fuel economy by 4% in the Japanese 10-15 mode test cycle. The efficiency remained at 60% or more after durability test.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

1995-02-01
950807
In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

New Light Weight 3 Liter V6 Toyota Engine with High Output Torque, Good Fuel Economy and Low Exhaust Emission Levels

1995-02-01
950805
A new generation 3.0 liter V6 engine, the 1MZ-FE, has been developed. Through improvement of the basic technical characteristics of each individual component, the 1MZ-FE has achieved compactness, weight reduction and good fuel economy without adding systems or components. This new engine makes use of an aluminum cylinder block, and compared with the previous V6 engine, significant weight reduction of the crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons was achieved while still maintaining a high level of rigidity. To improve fuel economy, friction loss was reduced substantially by reducing the weight of moving parts and improving the surface roughness of sliding parts. The combustion was also improved through better fuel atomization by the air-assisted fuel injector and modification of the combustion chamber shape. Through these improvements the 1MZ-FE has achieved a weight reduction of approximately 20% and far greater vehicle fuel economy than before.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricant Composition on Fuel Efficiency in Modern Engines

1995-02-01
951037
A bench engine test for evaluating the fuel efficiency of automotive crankcase oils using modern engines was developed. The fuel consumption was primarily proportional to the viscosity of the oils down to 5 mm2/s at operating temperatures, indicating that the use of low-viscosity oil was effective in improving fuel efficiency. This may be because the oil film would be formed easily, since sliding parts, such as valve train systems, in modern engines are finely finished. Organo molybdenum dithiocarbamates were effective in improving fuel efficiency at high temperature. A 2.7% improvement in fuel efficiency relative to conventional SAE 10W-30 oils was achieved by the combination of low-viscosity SAE 5W-20 oils and organo molybdenum dithiocarbamates under constant operating conditions with engine speed 1,500 rpm and torque 37.2 N•m.
Technical Paper

Off-Road Diesel Engine Transient Response Improvement by Electrically Assisted Turbocharging

2011-09-11
2011-24-0127
Turbocharged diesel engines are widely used in off-road applications including construction and mining machinery, electric power generation systems, locomotives, marine, petroleum, industrial and agricultural equipment. Such applications contribute significantly to both local air pollution and CO₂ emissions and are subject to increasingly stringent legislation. To improve fuel economy while meeting emissions limits, manufacturers are exploring engine downsizing by increasing engine boost levels. This allows an increase in IMEP without significantly increasing mechanical losses, which results in a higher overall efficiency. However, this can lead to poorer transient engine response primarily due to turbo-lag, which is a major penalty for engines subjected to fast varying loads. To recover transient response, the turbocharger can be electrically assisted by means of a high speed motor/generator.
Technical Paper

Practical Challenges on Yokohama Mobility “Project ZERO” - Towards next generation mobility for low-carbon future

2010-10-19
2010-01-2346
Reduction of greenhouse gases or CO2 is the global issue for sustainability. City of Yokohama, where 3.7 million people live, established the Yokohama Climate Change Action Policy “CO-DO30”, aiming to cut down on greenhouse gas emissions by over 30% per person by 2025, and by over 60% by 2050. “CO-DO30” includes 7 areas of approaches, such as Living, Businesses, Buildings, Transportation, Energies, Urban and Green, and City Hall. To achieve this challenging target, practical and effective action on transportation area is definitely required, because it emits 20% of total greenhouse gas emission in the city. In 2008, City of Yokohama and Nissan jointly started YOKOHAMA Mobility “Project ZERO” (YMPZ), a 5-year project aimed at realizing “Eco-Model City, Yokohama”.
Journal Article

Development of Exhaust and Evaporative Emissions Systems for Toyota THS II Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0831
Exhaust and evaporative emissions systems have been developed to match the characteristics and usage of the Toyota THS II plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on the commercially available Prius, the Toyota PHEV features an additional external charging function, which allows it to be driven as an electric vehicle (EV) in urban areas, and as an hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) in high-speed/high-load and long-distance driving situations. To reduce exhaust emissions, the conventional catalyst warm up control has been enhanced to achieve emissions performance that satisfies California's Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standards in every state of battery charge. In addition, a heat insulating fuel vapor containment system (FVS) has been developed using a plastic fuel tank based on the assumption that such a system can reduce the diffusion of vapor inside the fuel tank and the release of fuel vapor in to the atmosphere to the maximum possible extent.
Journal Article

High Concentration Ethanol Effect on SI Engine Emission

2010-04-12
2010-01-1268
From the energy security and CO2 reduction point of view, much attention has been paid to the usage of bio-fuel. Recently, highly concentrated ethanol is used in some areas (“E85”; 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline in North America and Sweden, and “ethanol”; 93% ethanol and 7% water in Brazil). In these regions, Flexible Fuel Vehicles FFVs are being introduced that are capable of using fuels with a wide range of ethanol concentrations. Advantages of highly concentrated ethanol in internal combustion engine applications are higher thermal efficiency obtained due to higher octane number, and a reduction of nitrogen oxides due to lower combustion temperatures On the other hand, the latent heat of vaporization for ethanol is greater than gasoline, causing poor cold startability and high NMOG emissions. This paper examines the effect of highly concentrated ethanol on exhaust emissions at cold start in a SI- engine.
Technical Paper

A New Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model Applicable to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0544
Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
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