Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Trends in Vehicle Information Displays in the Multimedia Era

1998-10-19
98C035
Flat panel displays for automobiles are facing a new era with the development of navigation systems. As navigation systems become more important as driver's assistance devices, development of birds-eye-view and 3D displays continues, as well as improvements for larger display screens and higher mounting positions. In response to the progress of mobile multimedia technologies, demands for larger display screens and larger aspect ratios have been increasing. Significance for improvements to anti-glare features or view angles has increased as they provide better visibility and the increase layout options. The use of human machine information interaction, which interfaces visual, audio and tactile senses, makes it possible to realize safer, more convenient and comfortable multimedia era vehicle
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Air Bag System for Head and Chest Protection

1998-05-31
986165
Most of the side impact air bag systems in the current market are designed to protect the thorax area only. The new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, which Nissan recently introduced into the market, was designed to help provide additional protection for the head in certain side impacts. The system may help protect occupant head contacts when the vehicle collides into a tree, or the high hood of a large striking vehicle. This paper introduces the additional features and function of the new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, and some evaluation results in laboratory testing.
Technical Paper

Interactive Information Delivery Navigation System

1998-10-19
98C029
In the past few years, car navigation and cellular phone system are rapidly increased in Japan and vehicle information and communication system (VICS), the public traffic information service started in 1996, accelerates realization of ITS world. This rapid movement causes drivers to want more information on not only traffic jam but also other versatile items like parking availability, weather report and the latest news, etc. via cellular phone network. This paper describes the on-demand information service with the interactive human interface by operators and the development of the information center and the in-vehicle system to realize it.
Technical Paper

The Development of Drowsiness Warning Devices

1985-01-01
856043
This paper describes a newly developed microcomputer-based drowsiness warning system, which detects changes in the driver's alertness through his steering behavior. In developing this system, we first quantified several levels of alertness based on such physiological factors as brain activity and blinking. Tests were then conducted in which drivers fell into different degrees of drowsiness. Using the quantified alertness levels, we defined the “drowsy driver” and found unique steering patterns that could not be seen in normal driving. These patterns were entered into the memory unit of the microcomputer. When the sensor built into the steering wheel detects a drowsy steering pattern, the microcomputer recognizes the driver's drowsiness and activates a buzzer to warn the driver. In this paper, the process of determining the alertness levels is explained, along with the steering characteristics of the drowsy driver.
Technical Paper

Development of Non-Rotating Steering Wheel-Switch

1985-11-11
852290
The expanded application of automotive electronics in recent years has increased the number of control switches, thus necessitating the optimization of their layout around the driver and improvement in operability. As an effective means in improving operability, switches mounted on the steering wheel have been developed, placing controls closer to drivers for easier access while driving. However, since the switches rotate along with the steering wheel, recognition and operation of those switches left a few things to be desired. Recently we developed a "steering wheel with a non-rotating center switch pad" where the pad section with the switches are kept stationary. In this paper we describe the general outline of this development.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1062
Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Sulfated Ash and Fuel Economy Diesel Engine Oil

2009-06-15
2009-01-1845
A low sulfated ash (S.Ash) DL-1/C2 0W-30 diesel engine oil with improved fuel economy has been developed to meet the PM targets outlined in the Euro 5 emissions standards and to help achieve the voluntary European CO2 target of 140 g/km. The newly developed engine oil is an effective solution to the trilemma (triple probrem) of reliability (high detergency and high anti wear), low S.Ash, and fuel economy, achieving a fuel economy improvement of 2% and reducing CO2 emissions by 3 g/km.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Method for Predicting the Risk of Crossing-Collisions at Intersection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0524
The probability or risk of traffic accidents must be estimated quantitatively in order to implement effective traffic safety measures. In this study, various statistical data and probability theory were used to examine a method for predicting the risk of crossing-collisions, representing a typical type of accident at intersections in Japan. Crossing-collisions are caused by a variety of factors, including the road geometry and traffic environment at intersections and the awareness and intentions of the drivers of the striking and struck vehicles. Bayes' theorem was applied to find the accident probability of each factor separately. Specifically, the probability of various factors being present at the time of a crossing-collision was estimated on the basis of traffic accident data and observation survey data.
Technical Paper

Real World Injury Patterns in Narrow Object Frontal Crashes: An Analysis of US Field Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0527
Analyses were performed using field data for belted drivers of light vehicles in frontal crashes to examine the frequency and severity of frontal crashes with narrow objects. This study examined the distribution of injuries by body region, crash severity, and single- versus multiple-vehicle crashes for narrow object and all other crashes. Factors influencing injuries in different types of frontal crashes were identified, and risk of injury to belted drivers in narrow object crashes versus other frontal crashes was examined. A detailed review of about 400 NASS cases involving narrow object crashes was also performed. Results indicate frontal crashes involving impact with poles, posts, or trees are relatively infrequent. Overall, the fatal risk for belted drivers is lower in narrow object crashes than in other types of frontal crashes.
Technical Paper

Sinter Diffusion Bonded Idler Sprocket of Automotive Engine

1995-02-01
950390
The key-points in the diffusion bonding technique of green compacts during sintering, are the material compositions, which should be chosen according to their dimensional change during sintering, and the fitting clearance, which should be maintained in the range of press fit. Applying this technique, we have developed sinter-diffusion bonded idler sprockets for automotive engines by comfirming the bonding strength and torsional fatigue strength. And we also have developed a nondestructive analysis method for assuring the joint strength of idler sprockets in the mass production.
Journal Article

Influence of Bio Diesel Fuel on Engine Oil Performance

2010-05-05
2010-01-1543
To evaluate the influence of FAME, which has poor oxidation stability, on engine oil performance, an engine test was conducted under large volumes of fuel dilution by post-injection. The test showed that detergent consumption and polymerization of FAME were accelerated in engine oil, causing a severe deterioration in piston cleanliness and sludge protection performance of engine oil.
Technical Paper

New Drivetrain for Toyota's Flagship Lexus LFA Sports Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-1427
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
Technical Paper

Automatic Falling Occupant Protecting Net - Preliminary Study

1970-02-01
700452
An automatic, falling, occupant-protecting net is being developed for spreading in front of automobile occupants in the time interval between vehicle impact and occupant collision. The device is designed to counteract forward body acceleration and minimize head, neck, and chest injuries. This device was investigated by sled and barrier tests using anthropomorphic dummies. Significant improvements in occupant kinematics and remarkable reduction in head and chest impact force has been observed. Some problems such as whiplash injury await solution but continuing investigation of proposed measures of correction show that they are not insurmountable.
Technical Paper

Indoor Pass-by Noise Evaluation System Capable of Reproducing ISO Actual Road Surface Tire Noise

2016-04-05
2016-01-0479
Generally, pass-by noise levels measured outdoors vary according to the influence of weather conditions, background noise and the driver’s skill. Manufactures, therefore, are trying to reproduce proving ground driving conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The tire noise that occurs on actual road surfaces, however, is difficult to reproduce in indoor tests. In 2016, new pass-by noise regulations (UN R51-03) will take effect in Europe, Japan and other countries. Furthermore, stricter regulations (2dB) will take effect in 2020. In addition to the acceleration runs required under current regulations, UN R51-03 will require constant speed runs. Therefore, an efficient measurement methods are necessary for vehicle development. To solve the above mentioned issues, an indoor evaluation system capable of reproducing the tire noise that occurs on road surfaces has been developed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0181
In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Valvetrain Wear Test - The Sequence IVB Test

2016-04-05
2016-01-0891
The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Occupant Model with Active Joint Torque Control for Muscular Reflex

2018-04-03
2018-01-1316
Riding comfort on the seat is one of the important factors for vehicle comfort. To analyze riding comfort, there were some models for predicting human vibrations in the past studies. On the other hand, it is strongly affected by human body motion caused by vehicle excitation during driving especially low frequency, but it is difficult to predict human motion due to an unclear mechanism of muscle reflex. The purpose of this study is to construct virtual riding comfort testing simulation based on virtual prototyping of the seat. In this study, a virtual occupant model that predicts occupant motion on the seat against external excitation including muscle reflex for maintaining sitting posture constructed. The whole body was modeled as 15 segments biomechanical model (1D) with wobbling mass. Each joint has passive elastic torque and damping torque springs. Human body surface was modeled as rigid shape.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Driver Workload Based on a Model of Accelerator Pedal Control While Controlling Vehicle Velocity

2016-04-05
2016-01-1412
In driver-focused vehicle development, driver workload is generally evaluated subjectively, with physiological, psychological, and behavioral indexes used to quantify and substantiate the subjective rating. In contrast, a model of driver behavior expresses the driver’s behavioral characteristics which make it possible to estimate how the driver will incorporate information into vehicle operation. Therefore, it is presumed to be capable of estimating the internal state of a driver. Conventionally, a model of driver behavior related to pedal operation has been used for evaluating the driver’s habits and the acceptability of various types of support devices. However, it has not been used for estimating driver workload related to pedal operation. To examine driver workload, this study divided pedal operation magnitude into two components: a learning/judgment component and a correcting component for prediction errors. A method was devised of separating these two components.
Technical Paper

Animal-Vehicle Encounter Naturalistic Driving Data Collection and Photogrammetric Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0124
Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Drowsy Driving Prediction based on Eye Opening Time

2017-03-28
2017-01-1398
Since drowsy driving is a major cause of serious traffic accidents, there is a growing requirement for drowsiness prevention technologies. This study proposes a drowsy driving prediction method based on eye opening time. One issue of using eye opening time is predicting strong drowsiness before the driver actually feels sleepy. Because overlooking potential hazards is one of the causes of traffic accidents and is closely related to driver cognition and drowsiness, this study focuses on eye opening movements during driving. First, this report describes hypotheses concerning drowsiness and eye opening time based on the results of previous studies. It is assumed that the standard deviation of eye opening time (SDEOP) indicates driver drowsiness and the following two transitions are considered: increasing and decreasing SDEOP. To confirm the hypotheses, the relationship between drowsiness and SDEOP was investigated.
X