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Technical Paper

Extraction of Liquid Water from the Exhaust of a Diesel Engine

2015-09-29
2015-01-2806
Introducing water in a diesel engine has been known to decrease peak combustion temperatures and decrease NOx emissions. This however, has been limited to stationary and marine applications due to the requirement of a separate water supply tank in addition to the fuel tank, thereby a two-tank system. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels produce between 1.35 (Diesel) and 2.55 times (Natural Gas) their mass in water. Techniques for extracting this water from the exhaust flow of an engine have been pursued by the United States department of defense (DOD) for quite some time, as they can potentially reduce the burden of supply of drinking water to front line troops in theater. Such a technology could also be of value to engine manufacturers as it could enable water injection for performance, efficiency and emissions benefits without the drawbacks of a two-tank system.
Technical Paper

Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA), Tri-Correlation (TriC), and Misfire Detection

2005-04-11
2005-01-0647
In this paper, two correlations, Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA) and Tri-Correlation (TriC), are introduced and discussed. The WSMA is simpler than the conventional autocorrelation. WSMA uses less data points to obtain useful signal content at desired frequencies. The computational requirement is therefore reduced compared to the conventional autocorrelation. The simplified TriC provides improved signal to noise separation capability than WSMA does while still requiring reduced computational effort compared to the standard autocorrelation. Very often, computation resource limitation exists for real-time applications. Therefore, the WSMA and TriC offer more opportunities for real-time monitor and feedback control applications in the frequency domain due to their high efficiencies. As an example, applications in internal combustion (IC) engine misfire detection are presented. Simulation and vehicle test results are also presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Por and Embedded Wireless Devices as Conduits for Telematics Applications

2002-10-21
2002-21-0049
As wireless devices and cellular networks continue to evolve, opportuvnities are created for enhancing the overall user experience with telematics related services. This paper discusses the pros and cons of por phone systems and embedded phone systems as conduits for telematics applications. Methods to enhance embedded in-vehicle telematics systems to include operation with handheld wireless devices on both Wide Area Networks (WAN) and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) will also be presented. Services will be discussed that allow vehicles and wireless devices to interact with each other and with remote servers. Implementation options will be explored along with an analysis of the key players in the telematics supply chain (i.e., OEMs, Suppliers, Carriers, Call Centers, Consumers) who ultimately benefit from each approach.
Journal Article

Water Injection as an Enabler for Increased Efficiency at High-Load in a Direct Injected, Boosted, SI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0663
In a Spark-Ignited engine, there will come a point, as load is increased, where the unburned air-fuel mixture undergoes auto-ignition (knock). The onset of knock represents the upper limit of engine output, and limits the extent of engine downsizing / boosting that can be implemented for a given application. Although effective at mitigating knock, requiring high octane fuel is not an option for most markets. Retarding spark timing can extend the high load limit incrementally, but is still bounded by limits for exhaust gas temperature, and spark retard results in a notable loss of efficiency. Likewise, enriching the air-fuel mixture also decreases efficiency, and has profound negative impacts on engine out emissions. In this current work, a Direct-Injected, Boosted, Spark-Ignited engine with Variable Valve Timing was tested under steady state high load operation. Comparisons were made among three fuels; an 87 AKI, a 91 AKI, and a 110 AKI off-road only race fuel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations for Spray Characterization of Uneven Multiple Jet-to-Jet Impingement Injectors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0840
Spray structure has a significant effect on emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine. The main objective of this study is to investigate spray structures based on four different multiple jet impingement injectors. These four different multiple jet-to-jet impingement injectors include 1). 4-hole injector (Case 1), which has symmetric inwardly opening nozzles; 2). 5-1-hole (Case 2); 3). 6-2-hole (Case 3); and 4). 7-3-hole (Case 4) which corresponding to 1, 2, 3 numbers of adjacent holes blocked in a 5-hole, 6-hole, and 7-hole symmetrical drill pattern, respectively. All these configurations are basically 4-holes but with different post collision spray structure. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work of these sprays has been performed using an Eulerian-Lagrangian modelling approach.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Spray-to-Spray Collision Study on Two-Hole Impinging Jet Nozzles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0948
High-speed spray-to-spray liquid impingement could be an effective phenomenon for the spray propagation and droplet vaporization. To achieve higher vaporization efficiency, impingement from two-hole nozzles is analyzed in this paper. This paper focuses on investigating vaporization mechanism as a function of the impingement location and the collision breakup process provided by two-hole impinging jet nozzles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is adopted to do simulation. Lagrangian model is used to predict jet-to-jet impingement and droplet breakup conditions while KH-RT breakup and O'Rourke collision models are implemented for the simulation. The paper includes three parts: First, a single spray injected into an initially quiescent constant volume chamber using the Lagrangian approach is simulated to identify the breakup region, which will be considered as a reference to study two-hole impinging jet nozzles. Lagrangian simulation results would be validated via experimental results.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Multi-Hole Impinging Jet High Pressure Spray Characteristics under Gasoline Engine-Like Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0847
Impingement of jet-to-jet has been found to give improved spray penetration characteristics and higher vaporization rates when compared to multi-hole outwardly injecting fuel injectors which are commonly used in the gasoline engine. The current work studies a non-reacting spray by using a 5-hole impinging-jet style direct-injection injector. The jet-to-jet collision induced by the inwardly opening nozzles of the multi-hole injector produces rapid and short jet breakup which is fundamentally different from how conventional fuel injectors operate. A non-reacting spray study is performed using a 5-hole impinging jet injector and a traditional 6-hole Bosch Hochdruck-Einspritzventil (HDEV)-5 gasoline direct-injection (GDI) injector with gasoline as a fuel injected at 172 bar pressure with ambient temperature of 653 K and 490 K and ambient pressure of 37.4 bar and 12.4 bar.
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