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Technical Paper

Implications of Particulate and Precursor Compounds Formed During High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3844
Advanced diesel combustion modes offer the promise of reduced engine-out particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, thereby reducing the demand on post-combustion emission control devices. In this activity, a light-duty diesel engine was operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes. The advanced combustion modes investigated correspond to both clean (i.e., low PM and low NOX) and clean efficient combustion. The low-NOX, low-PM mode is considered an intermediate condition and the low-NOX, low-PM efficient mode is referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Particulate and gaseous emissions were analyzed during all of these experiments. The detailed exhaust chemistry analysis provided significant new information to improving our understanding of these modes as well as identifying potentially important unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions from High Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0080
High-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes provide simultaneous reductions in diesel particulate matter and nitrogen-oxides emissions while retaining efficiencies characteristic of normal diesel engines. Fuel parameters may have significant impacts on the ability to operate in HECC modes and on the emissions produced in HECC modes. In this study, 3 diesel-range fuels and 2 oxygenated blends are burned in both normal and HECC modes at 3 different engine conditions. The results show that fuel effects play an important role in the emissions of hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide but do not significantly impact NOx emissions in HECC modes. HECC modes are achievable with 5% biodiesel blends in addition to petroleum-based and oil-sands derived fuels. Soot precursor and oxygenated compound concentrations in the exhaust were observed to generally increase with the sooting tendency of the fuel in HECC modes.
Technical Paper

Partial Oxidation Products and other Hydrocarbon Species in Diesel HCCI Exhaust

2005-10-24
2005-01-3737
A single cylinder engine was operated in HCCI mode with diesel-range fuels, spanning a range in cetane number (CN) from 34 to 62. In addition to measurements of standard gaseous emissions (CO, HC, and NOx), multiple sampling and analysis techniques were used to identify and measure the individual exhaust HC species including an array of oxygenated compounds. A new analytical method, using liquid chromatography (LC) with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in tandem with ultraviolet (UV) detection, was developed to analyze the longer chain aldehydes as well as carboxylic acids. Results showed an abundance of formic and butyric acid formation at or near the same concentration levels as formaldehyde and other aldehydes.
Technical Paper

ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2802
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied.
Journal Article

Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2497
The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP.
Journal Article

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling

2008-10-06
2008-01-2475
The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
Journal Article

Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst

2008-10-06
2008-01-2467
Compact heat exchangers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases, resulting in decreased NOx emissions. These exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers experience fouling through deposition of particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbons (HCs) that reduces the effectiveness of the cooler. Surrogate tubes have been used to investigate the impacts of gas flow rate and coolant temperature on the deposition of PM and HCs. The results indicate that mass deposition is lowest at high flow rates and high coolant temperatures. An oxidation catalyst was investigated and proved to effectively reduce deposition of HCs, but did not reduce overall mass deposition to near-zero levels. Speciation of the deposit HCs showed that a range of HCs from C15 - C25 were deposited and retained in the surrogate tubes.
Journal Article

Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) from High Efficiency Clean Combustion: Catalytic Exhaust Treatment Effects

2008-10-06
2008-01-2431
High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) strategies such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer much promise for the reduction of NOx and PM from diesel engines. While delivering low PM and low NOx, these combustion modes often produce much higher levels of CO and HC than conventional diesel combustion modes. In addition, partially oxygenated species such as formaldehyde (an MSAT) and other aldehydes increase with HECC modes. The higher levels of CO and HCs have the potential to compromise the performance of the catalytic aftertreatment, specifically at low load operating points. As HECC strategies become incorporated into vehicle calibrations, manufacturers need to avoid producing MSATs in higher quantities than found in conventional combustion modes. This paper describes research on two different HECC strategies, HCCI and PCCI.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Urea Decomposition and SCR Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-1858
Urea-SCR systems are potentially a highly-effective means of NOX reduction for light-duty diesel vehicles. However, use of urea-SCR technologies at low temperatures presents unique technical challenges. This study was undertaken to provide more knowledge about low temperature urea decomposition and the resulting effects on SCR performance. Data are presented for experiments using two SCR catalysts of differing size with a light-duty diesel engine. Analyses of the NOX reduction efficiency, NH3 storage phenomena, and unregulated emissions are shown. Over production of NO2 by the oxidation catalyst is demonstrated to be problematic at 25,000 hr-1 space velocity for a range of temperatures. This leads to production of N2O by both SCR catalysts that is higher when urea is injected than when NH3 is injected.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Aldehyde Emissions from Idling Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

2003-03-03
2003-01-0289
As part of a multi-agency study concerning emissions and fuel consumption from heavy-duty diesel truck idling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel measured CO, HC, NOx, CO2, O2, particulate matter (PM), aldehyde and ketone emissions from truck idle exhaust. Two methods of quantifying PM were employed: conventional filters and a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). A partial flow micro-dilution tunnel was used to dilute the sampled exhaust to make the PM and aldehyde measurements. The work was performed at the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Test Center's (ATC) climate controlled chamber. ATC performed 37 tests on five class-8 trucks (model years ranging from 1992 to 2001). One was equipped with an 11 hp diesel auxiliary power unit (APU), and another with a diesel direct-fired heater (DFH). The APU powers electrical accessories, heating, and air conditioning, whereas a DFH heats the cab in cold weather. Both devices offer an alternative to extended truck-engine idling.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Chemistry of Low-NOX, Low-PM Diesel Combustion

2004-03-08
2004-01-0114
The exhaust chemistry of combustion regimes characterized by simultaneous low-NOX and low-PM emissions were investigated on a Mercedes 1.7-L diesel engine. Two approaches for entering low-NOX low-PM regimes were explored using a California specification low aromatic certification diesel fuel. Detailed characterizations of gas-phase hydrocarbons, particulate soluble organics, and aldehydes are presented for both approaches. Results indicate significant formation of partially oxygenated hydrocarbons and fuel reformation products during periods of low-NOX, low-PM combustion.
Technical Paper

Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0937
New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Emission Transients By Mass Spectrometry

2000-10-16
2000-01-2952
High-speed diagnostics capable of accurately resolving emission transients are required to provide the most detailed understanding and optimization of active exhaust-emissions-treatment processes, such as NOX adsorbers. A portable, mass-spectrometry-based instrument with high temporal resolution, linear response and broad dynamic range is described. This instrument provides transient-concentration measurement capability for many relevant exhaust species including total NOX. In applications for evaluation of NOX-adsorber systems using heavy-duty diesel engines, the instrument revealed relevant emission transients not previously resolved with conventional analyzers. Specifically, the instrument resolved transient emissions associated with the competition between desorption and reduction rates. The temporal resolution of the instruments is sufficient to resolve kinetic rates of the NOX-adsorber system.
Technical Paper

Effects of Diesel Fuel Sulfur Level on Performance of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2000-06-19
2000-01-1876
This paper reports the test results from the DPF (diesel particulate filter) portion of the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects) Phase 1 test program. The DECSE program is a joint government and industry program to study the impact of diesel fuel sulfur level on aftertreatment devices. A systematic investigation was conducted to study the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on (1) the emissions performance and (2) the regeneration behavior of a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter. The tests were conducted on a Caterpillar 3126 engine with nominal fuel sulfur levels of 3 parts per million (ppm), 30 ppm, 150 ppm and 350 ppm.
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