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Technical Paper

Lubricating Oil Consumption on the Standard Road Cycle

Automobile manufacturers strive to minimize oil consumption from their engines due to the need to maintain emissions compliance over the vehicle life. Engine oil can contribute directly to organic gas and particle emissions as well as accelerate emissions degradation due to catalyst poisoning. During the Department of Energy Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability program, vehicles were aged using the Standard Road Cycle (SRC). In this program, matched sets of three or four vehicles were acquired; each vehicle of a set was aged on ethanol-free retail gasoline, or the same base gasoline blended with 10, 15, or 20% ethanol (E0, E10, E15, E20). The primary purpose of the program was to assess any changes in tailpipe emissions due to the use of increased levels of ethanol. Oil consumption was tracked during the program so that any measured emissions degradation could be appropriately attributed to fuel use or to excessive oil consumption.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline with diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 5.5 bar net mean effective pressure (NMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system.
Journal Article

Combustion Studies with FACE Diesel Fuels: A Literature Review

The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group has provided a matrix of experimental diesel fuels for use in studies on the effects of three parameters, Cetane number (CN), aromatics content, and 90 vol% distillation temperature (T90), on combustion and emissions characteristics of advanced combustion strategies. Various types of fuel analyses and engine experiments were performed in well-known research institutes. This paper reviews a collection of research findings obtained with these nine fuels. An extensive collection of analyses were performed by members of the FACE working group on the FACE diesel fuels as a means of aiding in understanding the linkage between fuel properties and combustion and emissions performance. These analyses included non-traditional chemical techniques as well as established ASTM tests. In a few cases, both ASTM tests and advanced analyses agreed that some design variables differed from their target values when the fuels were produced.
Technical Paper

Implications of Particulate and Precursor Compounds Formed During High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

Advanced diesel combustion modes offer the promise of reduced engine-out particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, thereby reducing the demand on post-combustion emission control devices. In this activity, a light-duty diesel engine was operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes. The advanced combustion modes investigated correspond to both clean (i.e., low PM and low NOX) and clean efficient combustion. The low-NOX, low-PM mode is considered an intermediate condition and the low-NOX, low-PM efficient mode is referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Particulate and gaseous emissions were analyzed during all of these experiments. The detailed exhaust chemistry analysis provided significant new information to improving our understanding of these modes as well as identifying potentially important unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions from High Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

High-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes provide simultaneous reductions in diesel particulate matter and nitrogen-oxides emissions while retaining efficiencies characteristic of normal diesel engines. Fuel parameters may have significant impacts on the ability to operate in HECC modes and on the emissions produced in HECC modes. In this study, 3 diesel-range fuels and 2 oxygenated blends are burned in both normal and HECC modes at 3 different engine conditions. The results show that fuel effects play an important role in the emissions of hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide but do not significantly impact NOx emissions in HECC modes. HECC modes are achievable with 5% biodiesel blends in addition to petroleum-based and oil-sands derived fuels. Soot precursor and oxygenated compound concentrations in the exhaust were observed to generally increase with the sooting tendency of the fuel in HECC modes.
Technical Paper

Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOx emissions standards. This paper reports results of a study of fundamental aspects of EGR cooler fouling. An apparatus and procedure were developed to allow surrogate EGR cooler tubes to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust under controlled conditions. The resulting fouled tubes were removed and analyzed. Volatile and non-volatile deposit mass was measured for each tube. Thermal diffusivity of the deposited soot cake was measured by milling a window into the tube and using the Xenon flash lamp method. The heat capacity of the deposit was measured at temperatures up to 430°C and was slightly higher than graphite, presumably due to the presence of hydrocarbons. These measurements were combined to allow calculation of the deposit thermal conductivity, which was determined to be 0.041 W/mK, only ∼1.5 times that of air and much lower than the 304 stainless steel tube (14.7 W/mK).
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions of 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP was chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic content (20 to 45%), and 90% distillation temperature (270 to 340°C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and adjusting injection parameters, such as higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion.
Technical Paper

Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NOx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NOx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%).
Journal Article

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling

The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
Journal Article

Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst

Compact heat exchangers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases, resulting in decreased NOx emissions. These exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers experience fouling through deposition of particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbons (HCs) that reduces the effectiveness of the cooler. Surrogate tubes have been used to investigate the impacts of gas flow rate and coolant temperature on the deposition of PM and HCs. The results indicate that mass deposition is lowest at high flow rates and high coolant temperatures. An oxidation catalyst was investigated and proved to effectively reduce deposition of HCs, but did not reduce overall mass deposition to near-zero levels. Speciation of the deposit HCs showed that a range of HCs from C15 - C25 were deposited and retained in the surrogate tubes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Chemistry of Low-NOX, Low-PM Diesel Combustion

The exhaust chemistry of combustion regimes characterized by simultaneous low-NOX and low-PM emissions were investigated on a Mercedes 1.7-L diesel engine. Two approaches for entering low-NOX low-PM regimes were explored using a California specification low aromatic certification diesel fuel. Detailed characterizations of gas-phase hydrocarbons, particulate soluble organics, and aldehydes are presented for both approaches. Results indicate significant formation of partially oxygenated hydrocarbons and fuel reformation products during periods of low-NOX, low-PM combustion.
Technical Paper

Performance of a NOX Adsorber and Catalyzed Particle Filter System on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

A prototype emissions control system consisting of a close-coupled lightoff catalyst, catalyzed diesel particle filter (CDPF), and a NOX adsorber was evaluated on a Mercedes A170 CDI. This laboratory experiment aimed to determine whether the benefits of these technologies could be utilized simultaneously to allow a light-duty diesel vehicle to achieve levels called out by U.S. Tier 2 emissions legislation. This research was carried out by driving the A170 through the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP), US06, and highway fuel economy test (HFET) dynamometer driving schedules. The vehicle was fueled with a 3-ppm ultra-low sulfur fuel. Regeneration of the NOX adsorber/CDPF system was accomplished by using a laboratory in-pipe synthesis gas injection system to simulate the capabilities of advanced engine controls to produce suitable exhaust conditions. The results show that these technologies can be combined to provide high pollutant reduction efficiencies in excess of 90% for NOX and PM.
Journal Article

Removal of EGR Cooler Deposit Material by Flow-Induced Shear

A number of studies have identified a tendency for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers to foul to a steady-state level and subsequently not degrade further. One possible explanation for this behavior is that the shear force imposed by the gas velocity increases as the deposit thickens. If the shear force reaches a critical level, it achieves a removal of the deposit material that can balance the rate of deposition of new material, creating a stabilized condition. This study reports efforts to observe removal of deposit material in-situ during fouling studies as well as an ex-situ removal through the use of controlled air flows. The critical gas velocity and shear stress necessary to cause removal of deposit material is identified and reported. In-situ observations failed to show convincing evidence of a removal of deposit material. The results show that removal of deposit material requires a relatively high velocity of 40 m/s or higher to cause removal.
Journal Article

Effects of Oil Formulation, Oil Separator, and Engine Speed and Load on the Particle Size, Chemistry, and Morphology of Diesel Crankcase Aerosols

The recirculation of gases from the crankcase and valvetrain can potentially lead to the entrainment of lubricant in the form of aerosols or mists. As boost pressures increase, the blow-by flow through both the crankcase and the valve cover increases. The resulting lubricant can then become part of the intake charge, potentially leading to fouling of intake components such as the intercooler and the turbocharger. The entrained aerosol which can contain the lubricant and soot may or may not have the same composition as the bulk lubricant. The complex aerodynamic processes that lead to entrainment can strip out heavy components or volatilize light components. Similarly, the physical size and numbers of aerosol particles can be dependent upon the lubricant formulation and engine speed and load. For instance, high rpm and load may increase not only the flow of gases but the amount of lubricant aerosol.