Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1023
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welds made with convex and concave tools in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated based on experiments and a kinked fatigue crack growth model. Lap-shear specimens with the welds were tested under both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs indicate that under both quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions, the welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the tools were plunged in during the welding processes. Based on the observed failure mode, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives of the welds. In the kinked crack fatigue crack growth model, the stress intensity factor solutions for fatigue life estimations are based on the closed-form solutions for idealized spot welds in lap-shear specimens.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Ultrasonic Spot Welds with Adhesive in Lap-Shear Specimens of Magnesium and Steel Sheets

2013-04-08
2013-01-1020
Failure modes and fatigue behaviors of ultrasonic spot welds in lap-shear specimens of magnesium AZ31B-H24 and hot-dipped-galvanized mild steel sheets with and without adhesive are investigated. Ultrasonic spot welded, adhesive-bonded, and weld-bonded lap-shear specimens were made. These lap-shear specimens were tested under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The ultrasonic spot weld appears not to provide extra strength to the weld-bonded lap-shear specimen under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The quasi-static and fatigue strengths of adhesive-bonded and weld-bonded lap-shear specimens appear to be the same. For the ultrasonic spot welded lap-shear specimens, the optical micrographs indicate that failure mode changes from the partial nugget pullout mode under quasi-static and low-cycle loading conditions to the kinked crack growth mode under high-cycle loading conditions.
Journal Article

Corrosion Behavior of Mixed-Metal Joint of Magnesium to Mild Steel by Ultrasonic Spot Welding with and without Adhesives

2013-04-08
2013-01-1017
Development of reliable magnesium (Mg) to steel joining methods is one of the critical issues in broader applications of Mg in automotive body construction. Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) has been demonstrated successfully to join Mg to steel and to achieve strong joints. In this study, corrosion test of ultrasonic spot welds between 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 and 0.8 mm thick galvanized mild steel, without and with adhesive, was conducted. Adhesive used was a one-component, heat-cured epoxy material, and was applied between overlapped sheets before USW. Corrosion test was conducted with an automotive cyclic corrosion test, which includes cyclic exposures of dipping in the 0.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) bath, a constant humidity environment, and a drying period. Lap shear strength of the joints decreased with the cycles of corrosion exposure. Good joint strengths were retained at the end of 30-cycle test.
Technical Paper

Investigating Potential Light-duty Efficiency Improvements through Simulation of Turbo-compounding and Waste-heat Recovery Systems

2010-10-25
2010-01-2209
Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

2010-04-12
2010-01-1266
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
Technical Paper

Friction Measurement in the Valve Train with a Roller Follower

1994-03-01
940589
The valve train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod forces, and cam speed. Results are presented for one exhaust valve of a motored Cummins L-10 engine. The instantaneous cam/roller friction force was determined from the instantaneous roller speed and the pin friction torque. The pushrod force and displacement were also measured. Friction work loss was determined for both cam and roller interface as well as the upper valve train which includes the valve pushrod, rocker arm, valve guide, and valve. Roller follower slippage on the cam was also determined. A kinematic analysis with the measured data provided the normal force and contact stress at cam/roller interface.(1) Finally, the valve train friction was found to be in the mixed lubrication regime.(2) Further efforts will address the theoretical analysis of valve train friction to predict roller slippage.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road Excitations on Driveline Output Torque Measurements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1538
This paper presents the characterization of the random noise in driveline output shaft torque measurements that is commonly induced by road disturbances. To investigate the interaction between the shaft torque and road side excitation, torque signals are measured using a magnetoelastic torque sensor, as well as a conventional strain gauge sensor, under various types of road surfaces and conditions such as unevenness. A generalized de-trending method for producing a stationary random signal is first conducted. Statistical methods, in particular the probability density function and transform technique, are utilized to provide an evident signature for identifying the road excitation effect on the vehicle output shaft torque. Analysis results show how the road surface can act as a disturbance input to the vehicle shaft torque.
Journal Article

Neutron Diffraction Studies of Intercritically Austempered Ductile Irons

2011-04-12
2011-01-0033
Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool that can be used to identify the phases present and to measure the spacing of the atomic planes in a material. Thus, the residual stresses can be determined within a component and/or the phases present. New intercritically austempered irons rely on the unique properties of the austenite phase present in their microstructures. If these materials are to see widespread use, methods to verify the quality (behavior consistency) of these materials and to provide guidance for further optimization will be needed. Neutron diffraction studies were performed at the second generation neutron residual stress facility (NRSF2) at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a variety of intercritically austempered irons. For similar materials, such as TRIP steels, the strengthening mechanism involves the transformation of metastable austenite to martensite during deformation.
Technical Paper

Predicting Emissions Using CFD Simulations of an E30 Gasoline Surrogate in an HCCI Engine with Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2010-04-12
2010-01-0362
To accurately predict emissions as well as combustion phasing in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, detailed chemistry needs to be used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling. In this work, CFD simulations of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) gasoline HCCI engine have been performed with full coupling to detailed chemistry. Engine experiments using an E30 gasoline surrogate blend were performed at ORNL, which included measurements of several trace species in the exhaust gas. CFD modeling using a detailed mechanism for the same fuel composition used in the experiments was also performed. Comparisons between data and model are made over a range of intake temperatures. The (experiment & model) surrogate blend consists of 33 wt % ethanol, 8.7 % n-heptane and 58.3 % iso-octane. The data and simulations involve timing sweeps using intake temperature to control combustion phasing at a constant fuel rate.
Technical Paper

Continuous Particulate Filter State of Health Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Sensing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1260
Reliable means for on-board detection of particulate filter failures or malfunctions are needed to meet diagnostics (OBD) requirements. Detecting these failures, which result in tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions exceeding the OBD limit, over all operating conditions is challenging. Current approaches employ differential pressure sensors and downstream PM sensors, in combination with particulate filter and engine-out soot models. These conventional monitors typically operate over narrowly-defined time windows and do not provide a direct measure of the filter’s state of health. In contrast, radio frequency (RF) sensors, which transmit a wireless signal through the filter substrate provide a direct means for interrogating the condition of the filter itself.
Technical Paper

Application of High Performance Computing for Simulating Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Combustion Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0798
Interest in operational cost reduction is driving engine manufacturers to consider low-cost fuel substitution in heavy-duty diesel engines. These dual-fuel (DF) engines could be operated either in diesel-only mode or operated with premixed natural gas (NG) ignited by a pilot flame of compression-ignited direct-injected diesel fuel. Under certain conditions, dual-fuel operation can result in increased cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) during combustion. CFD can greatly help in understanding and identifying critical parameters influencing CCV. Innovative modelling techniques and large computing resources are needed to investigate the factors affecting CCV in dual-fuel engines. This paper discusses the use of the High Performance Computing resource Titan, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to investigate CCV of a dual-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Big Area Additive Manufacturing and Hardware-in-the-Loop for Rapid Vehicle Powertrain Prototyping: A Case Study on the Development of a 3-D-Printed Shelby Cobra

2016-04-05
2016-01-0328
Rapid vehicle powertrain development has become a technological breakthrough for the design and implementation of vehicles that meet and exceed the fuel efficiency, cost, and performance targets expected by today’s consumer. Recently, advances in large scale additive manufacturing have provided the means to bridge hardware-in-the-loop with preproduction mule chassis testing. This paper details a case study from Oak Ridge National Laboratory bridging the powertrain-in-the-loop development process with vehicle systems implementation using big area additive manufacturing (BAAM). For this case study, the use of a component-in-the-loop laboratory with math-based models is detailed for the design of a battery electric powertrain to be implemented in a printed prototype mule. The ability for BAAM to accelerate the mule development process via the concept of computer-aided design to part is explored.
Technical Paper

Residual Stress Distribution in a Hydroformed Advanced High Strength Steel Component: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Finite Element Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0803
Today’s automotive industry is witnessing increasing applications of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) combined with innovative manufacturing techniques to satisfy fuel economy requirements of stringent environmental regulations. The integration of AHSS in novel automotive structure design has introduced huge advantages in mass reduction while maintaining their structural performances, yet several concerns have been raised for this relatively new family of steels. One of those concerns is their potentially high springback after forming, which can lead to geometrical deviation of the final product from its designed geometry and cause difficulties during assembly. From the perspective of accurate prediction, control and compensation of springback, further understanding on the effect of residual stress in AHSS parts is urged. In this work, the residual stress distribution in a 980GEN3 steel part after hydroforming is investigated via experimental and numerical approaches.
Technical Paper

Automobile Demand and the Policy Forecast

1983-02-01
830494
Mathematical models of the automotive system play a valuable role in forecasting and policy analysis, especially in the public sector. However, poor documentation, lack of adequate model evaluation and unfamiliarity with the data and structural limitations of models suggest the possibility of misuse in such policy applications as fuel economy standards and regulatory impact assessments. Findings are illustrated by analysis of two models: the Wharton EFA Automobile Demand Model and the Sweeney Passenger Car Gasoline Demand Model. In addition, 40 world sector models and studies representing more than 75 countries are summarized.
Technical Paper

Repairable System Reliability Prediction

2004-03-08
2004-01-0457
For a vehicle or repairable system, incidents (conditions) are neither necessarily independent nor identically distributed. Therefore, traditional statistical distributions like Weibull, Normal, etc, are no longer valid to estimate reliability. The Non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) model can be used to predict reliability and warranty of the field product. It can also measure the reliability improvement during the development cycle. The NHPP model is discussed in this paper. In applying a NHHP model to reliability data on a repairable system, one may have few or no failures. This paper presents the I/100 and reliability derivations when the parameter β in the ROCOF function is assumed to have a known value.
Technical Paper

Press-Line Simulation in Stamping Process

2004-03-08
2004-01-1047
The automotive industry is rapidly implementing computer simulation in every aspect of their processes mainly to decrease the time required to bring new models to market. Computer simulation can also be used to reduce the cost of vehicle development and manufacturing. A major portion of the manufacturing cost associated with automotive stamping lies in the process design, build and tryout of production dies and in automation of the transfer equipment. Press home-line tryout is largely a trial-and-error process relying heavily on the skills and experience of tool and die makers. To reduce this dependence on human skills and effort, press-line simulation can be effectively utilized to verify the design accuracy thereby reducing the changes needed to rework the production die/tool. The entire press-line with all its complete accessories can be modeled and checked for design errors similar to the try-out conducted in the production plant.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0107
This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Speed Prediction for Driver Assistance Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0170
A predictive automatic gear shift system is currently under development. The system optimizes the gear shift process, taking the conditions of the road ahead into account, such that the fuel consumption is minimized. An essential part of the system is a module that predicts the vehicle speed dynamics: This calculates a speed trajectory, i.e. the most probable vehicle speed the driver will desire for the upcoming section of the route. In the paper the theoretical background for predicting the vehicle speed, and simulation results of the predictive shift algorithm are presented.
Technical Paper

Side Window Buffeting Characteristics of an SUV

2004-03-08
2004-01-0230
Buffeting is a wind noise of high intensity and low frequency in a moving vehicle when a window or sunroof is open and this noise makes people in the passenger compartment very uncomfortable. In this paper, side window buffeting was simulated for a typical SUV using the commercial CFD software Fluent 6.0. Buffeting frequency and intensity were predicted in the simulations and compared with the corresponding experimental wind tunnel measurement. Furthermore, the effects of several parameters on buffeting frequency and intensity were also studied. These parameters include vehicle speed, yaw angle, sensor location and volume of the passenger compartment. Various configurations of side window opening were considered. The effects of mesh size and air compressibility on buffeting were also evaluated. The simulation results for some baseline configurations match the corresponding experimental data fairly well.
X